My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Traditional Vision of Education (P.26)

1.1.1. 1. Schools are necessary for the transmission of the traditional values of U.S. society.

1.1.1.1. Hard Work

1.1.1.2. Family Unity

1.1.1.3. Individual Initiative

1.1.2. 2. Role of the School- to balance the needs of society and the individual in a manner that is consistent with a democratic and meritocratic society. (P.27)

1.2. Liberal Perspective

1.2.1. 3. Explanation of Unequal Educational Performance- Individual students or groups of students begin school with different life chances and therefore some groups have significantly more advantages than others. (P.28)

1.2.1.1. Society must attempt through policies and programs to equalize the playing field so that students from disadvantaged backgrounds have a better chance. (P.28)

1.2.2. 4. Reform- A balance should be maintained between setting acceptable performance standards and ensuring that all students can meet them. (P.30)

1.2.3. 5. Policy- Policies should lead to the improvement of failing schools, especially urban schools. (P.30)

1.2.4. 6. Education and the American Dream- Liberals believe that schools have been successful in extending public education to the masses and providing more opportunity for mobility than any other system in the world. (P.32)

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Traditional Cycle of Reform

2.1.1. Knowledge-centered education, a traditional subject-centered curriculum, teacher-centered education, discipline and authority, and the defense of academic standards in the name of excellence. P. 74

2.2. The National Defense Education Act: 1958

2.2.1. Authorized millions of dollars to mathematics, science, and gifted education. P. 88

2.2.1.1. This is beneficial because Mathematics and Science are leading subjects in education. Furthermore, funds for gifted education is beneficial because students in gifted education usually learn more in depth, advanced, topics than students in the "normal" classroom. (Personal Opinion, plus I was in gifted education in my first two schools and they need the funds for everything they do, if all of them are similar to the ones I was in.)

2.3. Elementary and Secondary Education Act: 1965

2.3.1. Emphasized the education of disadvantaged children. P.75

2.3.1.1. This helps the disadvantaged receive a proper education for their life. (Personal Opinion)

2.4. Radical-Revisionist

2.4.1. The educational system has expanded to meet the needs of the elites in society. P. 83-P. 84

2.4.2. Each new expansion increased stratification of working-class and disadvantaged students within the system, with these students less likely to succeed educationally. P. 84

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Functional

3.1.1. Emile Durkheim-http://www.iep.utm.edu/durkheim/

3.2. Knowledge and Attitudes

3.2.1. Research has indicated that the more education individuals receive, the more likely they are to read newspapers, books, magazines, and to take part in politics and public affairs. P. 121

3.3. Employment

3.3.1. Research has shown that large organizations, such as corporations, require high levels of education for white-collar, managerial, or administrative jobs. P. 121-122

3.4. Education and Mobility

3.4.1. Private and public school students may receive the same amount of education, but a private school diploma may act as a "mobility escalator" because it represents a more prestigious educational route. P. 122

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Philosophy, as applied to education, allows practitioners and prospective practitioners to apply systematic approaches to problem solving in schools and illuminates larger issues of the complex relationship of schools to the social order. P. 179

4.2. Realism

4.2.1. Goal of Education

4.2.1.1. Aristotle: Believed it was possible to understand ideas through studying the world of matter. P. 185

4.2.1.2. Plato: Emphasized only the study of ideas to understand ideas. P. 185

4.2.2. Role of the Teacher

4.2.2.1. Should be steeped in the basic academic disciplines in order to transmit knowledge to their students... [Teachers] should have a solid grounding in science, mathematics, and the humanities... To enable students to learn objective methods of evaluating such works. P. 185

4.2.3. Methods of Instruction

4.2.3.1. Lecture

4.2.3.1.1. In order to give students the knowledge necessary to make these evaluations.

4.2.3.2. Question and Answer

4.2.3.3. Competency-Based assessment

4.2.3.3.1. A way of ensuring that students learn what they are being taught.

4.2.4. Curriculum

4.2.4.1. Science and math, reading and writing, and the humanities.

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. State Senator

5.1.1. Steve Livingston

5.2. State Representative

5.2.1. Tommy Hanes

5.3. State School Board Representative

5.3.1. Mary Scott Hunter

5.4. State Superintendent

5.4.1. Thomas Bice

5.5. Local Superintendent

5.5.1. Dr. Bart Reeves

5.6. Local School Board

5.6.1. John Lyda

5.6.2. Cecil Grant

5.6.3. Kenneth Storey

5.6.4. Chad Gorham

5.6.5. Charles West

5.7. Finland's Education

5.7.1. Received high scores on mathematics, science, and literary exams administered by PISA. With little change in score despite ethnic, racial, and socioeconomic groups in Finland. As opposed to other countries involved with PISA, including the United States, that have large gaps between their highest and lowest scoring students.

5.7.2. Unlike many other countries, Finland has abolished almost all forms of standardized testing.

5.7.3. Only 15 percent of college graduates who apply for teacher education programs are admitted.

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Humanist Curriculum

6.1.1. Reflects the idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts is the cornerstone of an educated citizenry and that the purpose of education is to present to students the best of what has been thought and written (P. 282).

6.1.2. This curriculum model dominated nineteenth-century and early twentieth-century U.S. education and was codified in the National Education Association's Committee of Ten report issued in 1983, "which recommended that all secondary students, regardless of whether they intended to go to college, should be liberally educated and should study English, foreign languages, mathematics, history, and science" (P. 282).

6.2. Functionalists

6.2.1. The school curriculum represents the codification of the knowledge that students need to become competent members of society.

6.2.2. Believe that schools teach the general values and norms essential to a modern society.

6.3. Philosophy of Teaching

6.3.1. Mimetic Tradition

6.3.1.1. The purpose of education is to transmit specific knowledge to students.

6.3.1.2. Didactic method

6.3.1.2.1. Commonly relies on the lecture or presentation as the main form of communication.

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Social Stratification

7.1.1. Caste- race and/or religious

7.1.1.1. Given the nature of U.S. society, it is extremely difficult to separate race from class. (P. 343)

7.1.2. Class- differential achievement by individuals, especially economically

7.1.2.1. ~1-3% Upper Class

7.1.2.1.1. Possession of Property

7.1.2.2. ~15% Upper Middle Class

7.1.2.2.1. Professional and Managerial

7.1.2.3. 25% Low Middle Class

7.1.2.3.1. Professionals (i.e. School Teachers, Small Business Owners)

7.1.2.4. 40% Working Class

7.1.2.4.1. Laborers

7.1.2.5. 20% Underclass

7.1.2.5.1. Marginal to the economy; extremely poor

7.1.2.6. Due to class the upper and middle class are more expecting of their children to receive a proper education and a longer one than those in the working and underclass.

7.1.3. Estate- hierarchy of family worth

7.2. The Coleman Study (1966)

7.2.1. Organizational differences between schools were not particularly important in determining student outcomes when compared to the differences in student-body compositions between schools. (P. 367)

7.2.2. Responses to Coleman: Round One

7.2.2.1. Between school differences in any measurable attribute of institutions are only modestly related to a variety of outcome variables. (P. 367)

7.3. The Coleman Study (1982)

7.3.1. Private schools were more effective learning environments than public schools because they place more emphasis on academic activities and because private schools enforce discipline in a way that is consistent with student achievement. (P. 368)

7.3.2. Responses to Coleman: Round Two

7.3.2.1. The differences that do exist between public and Catholic schools are statistically insignificant. (P. 368)

7.3.3. Responses to Coleman: Round Three

7.3.3.1. The racial and socioeconomic composition of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class. (P. 369)

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Student-Centered

8.1.1. Cultural Deprivation

8.1.1.1. Popularized in the 1960s, suggests that working-class and nonwhite families often lack the cultural resources, such as books and other educational stimuli, and thus arrive at school at a significant disadvantage. (P. 423)

8.1.2. Cultural Difference

8.1.2.1. Sees working-class and nonwhite students as resisting the dominant culture of the schools. (P. 426)

8.2. School-Centered

8.2.1. Financing

8.2.1.1. There is more spending per pupil in more affluent areas. (P. 428)

8.2.1.1.1. Franklin Square ~$15,590 (Table 9.1, P. 429)

8.2.1.1.2. Long Beach ~$30,074 (Table 9.1, P.429)

8.2.2. Curricula/ Ability Grouping

8.2.2.1. Education in the United States assumes that students in the lower tracks are not capable of doing academic work and thus schools do not offer them an academically challenging curriculum. (P. 435)

8.3. Gender

8.3.1. Traditional male and female characteristics are part of the full range of human possibilities, and that schools should socialize both boys and girls to be caring and connected. (P. 437)

9. Educational Reform

9.1. No Child Left Behind

9.1.1. A landmark and controversial piece of legislation that had far-reaching consequences for education in the United States. (P. 517)

9.1.1.1. Annual Testing

9.1.1.1.1. In grades 3 through 8 in reading and math plus at least one test in grades 10 through 12; science testing to follow. (P. 517)

9.1.1.2. Teachers

9.1.1.2.1. Schools must have "highly qualified" teachers for the "core academic subjects" by 2005-2006. (P. 517)

9.2. School-Based Reform

9.2.1. Vouchers

9.2.1.1. Voucher advocates argue that school choice will have three important educational impacts. (P. 524)

9.2.1.1.1. It will provide low-income parents with the same choices as middle-class parents and lead to increased parental satisfaction with their children's schools.

9.2.1.1.2. Charter and voucher schools will provide better learning environments for low-income students and result in higher student achievement.

9.2.1.1.3. Due to the competitive market effects of competition from charter and voucher schools, urban schools will be forced to improve or close their doors. This will result in higher student achievement in urban public schools.

9.2.2. School-to-Work Programs (P. 527)

9.2.2.1. Relevant education

9.2.2.1.1. Allowing students to explore different careers and see what skills are required in their working environment.

9.2.2.2. Skills

9.2.2.2.1. Obtained from structured training and work-based learning experiences, including necessary skills of a particular career as demonstrated in a working environment.

9.2.2.3. Valued Credentials

9.2.2.3.1. Establishing industry-standard benchmarks and developing education and training standards that ensure that proper education is received for each career.

9.2.3. Teacher Education

9.2.3.1. Both the Carnegie and Homes Reports focus on the same general concerns. (P. 529)

9.2.3.1.1. They agree that overall problems in education cannot be solved without corresponding changes in teacher education.

9.2.3.1.2. Rigorous standards of entry into the profession must be implemented, and systematic examinations to monitor such entry must be developed.

9.2.3.1.3. University teacher education programs and schools must be connected in a more systematic and cooperative manner.

9.2.3.1.4. Career ladders that recognize differences in knowledge, skill, and commitment must be created for teachers.

9.2.3.1.5. Necessary changes must be made in the schools and professional lives of teachers in order to attract and retain the most competent candidates for the profession.

9.3. State Intervention

9.3.1. (P. 537) State takeovers are credited with

9.3.1.1. Reducing nepotism within a school district's decision-making process.

9.3.1.2. Improving a school district's administrative and fiscal management practices.

9.3.1.3. Removing the threat of teachers' strikes within a school district.

9.3.1.4. Upgrading the physical condition of schools.

9.3.1.5. Implementing innovative programs within a school district, such as small schools programs and cooperative arrangements between schools and social service agencies.