ED 302 Foundation of Education Anna Felis

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ED 302 Foundation of Education Anna Felis by Mind Map: ED 302 Foundation of Education Anna Felis

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Conservative

1.1.1. Social Darwinism "Survival of the fittest" 1880s

1.1.2. Teach the basics: reading, writing, mathematics

1.1.3. Traditional viewpoint

1.1.4. Progress dependent on individual initiative/hard work

1.1.5. Free market economy of capitalism

1.1.6. Maintains positive view of U.S. society

1.1.7. Educational problems: decline of standards, decline of cultural literacy, decline of values, and decline of authority

1.2. Liberal

1.3. Radical

1.4. Neo-liberal

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. 17th Century

2.1.1. 1635 Boston Latin Grammar School

2.1.2. 1636 Harvard College established

2.1.3. 1647 Puritan "Old Deluder Satan Law"

2.1.4. 1687-1890 New England Primer

2.1.5. Benjamin Franklin & Thomas Jefferson

2.2. 18th Century

2.2.1. National interest in education, state responsibility, and growth in secondary education

2.2.2. 1751 Franklin Academy

2.2.3. 1783 Noah Webster's American Spelling Book

2.2.4. 1785, 1787 Land Ordinance Act, Northwest Ordinance

2.3. 19th Century

2.3.1. Increasing role of public secondary schools, increased but segregated education of women and minorities, attention to the field of education, and teacher preparation

2.3.2. 1821 Emma Willard's Troy Female Seminary

2.3.3. 1821 First public high school: Boston English High School

2.3.4. 1837 Horace Mann

2.3.5. 1855 First Kindergarten in U.S.

2.3.6. 1874 Kalamazoo Case

2.3.7. 1896 Plessy vs. Ferguson

2.4. 20th Century

2.4.1. Increasing federal support for educational rights of underachieving students and increased federal funding of specific educational programs

2.4.2. 1909 First junior high school

2.4.3. 1919 Progressive Education Programs

2.4.4. 1932 Roosevelt's New Deal Education Programs

2.4.5. 1944 G.I. Bill of Rights

2.4.6. 1954 Brown vs. Board of Education

2.4.7. 1957 Sputnik

2.4.8. 1964-1965 Head Start

2.4.9. 1972 Title IX

2.4.10. 1975 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

2.4.11. 1979 Cabinet-level Department of Education

2.4.12. 1983 A Nation at Risk

2.4.13. 2002 No Child Left Behind Act

2.5. Historical Interpretation: Conservative

2.5.1. Academic quality has suffered from progressive movements

2.5.2. Liberal pursuits of social and political objectives have resulted in significant damage to traditional academic goals of schools

3. Sociological Perspectives

3.1. Three Major Theories

3.1.1. Functional: assess interdependence of the social system

3.1.2. Interactional: view interactions between students/students and teachers/teachers/teachers and administration/teachers and families

3.1.3. Conflict: society is not held together by shared values alone, but on the ability of dominate groups to impose their will on subordinate groups

3.2. Sociological Influences of School

3.2.1. Tracking: the entire school population is assigned to classes according to whether the student's overall achievement is above average, normal, or below average

3.2.2. De Facto Segregation: racial segregation that happens "by fact" rather than by legal requirement

3.3. Four Levels of the Sociology of Education

3.3.1. Societal: structure of dominance in society; societal ideologies

3.3.2. Institutional: educational structures; educational ideologies and concepts

3.3.3. Interpersonal: teachers' expectations; educational interactions

4. Philosophy of Education

4.1. Realism

4.1.1. Essentialism

4.1.2. Teacher-led

4.1.3. Conservative/traditional

4.1.4. Back to basics: reading, writing, math; "core curriculum"

4.1.5. Direct instruction and orderly classroom

4.1.6. Theorists: William Bagley & E. D. Hirsch

4.1.7. Syllogism, empirical point of view, Tabula Rosa

4.2. Idealism

4.2.1. Perennialism

4.2.2. Teacher-led

4.2.3. Conservative/traditional

4.2.4. Favor classic literature; shun textbooks; "Great Books"

4.2.5. Electives are unnecessary

4.2.6. Theorists: Robert Hutchins & Mortimer Adler

4.2.7. Bible, Iliad, Odyssey

4.3. Pragmatism

4.3.1. Progressivism

4.3.2. Student-led

4.3.3. Liberal

4.3.4. Inquiry method of learning

4.3.5. Group learning; project based learning

4.3.6. Theorists: John Dewey & Nel Noddings

4.3.7. Focused on concerns, curiosity, and real world experiences of students

4.4. Neo-Marxism

4.4.1. Social-Reconstructionism

4.4.2. Student-led

4.4.3. Radical

4.4.4. Focus on bettering society

4.4.5. Flexible and integrated curriculum

4.4.6. Theorists: George S. Counts & Paulo Friere

4.4.7. Social awareness, problem solvers, praxis

4.5. Existentialism

4.5.1. Student-led

4.5.2. Radical

4.5.3. Students choose own pace of learning

4.5.4. Students grade and evaluate their own work

4.5.5. Theorists: Maxine Greene & A. S. Neill

4.5.6. Phenomenology, hermeneutics

4.5.7. Wool chickens and Waldorf schools

5. Schools as Organizations

5.1. Schools are powerful organizations

5.2. Decentralized school system: each state maintains autonomy, authority, and responsibility

5.2.1. Federal government has little input

5.2.2. United States

5.3. Centralized school system: government has much input in school; efficient, cost effective

5.3.1. Negative impact: less diverse (de facto segregation

5.3.2. France, Germany, Great Britain

5.4. Willard Waller: schools are social organizations

5.4.1. Schools have populations

5.4.2. Schools have defined political structures

5.4.3. Schools represent central network of social relationships

5.4.4. Schools are permeated with a "we" ideal

5.4.5. Schools have definite cultures

5.5. Max Weber: schools are social organizations that are bureaucratic in nature

5.6. No Child Left Behind Act: highly qualified teachers

5.6.1. Hold a college degree

5.6.2. Full certification in field of study

5.6.3. Demonstrable knowledge of academic content

5.7. Educational systems in other countries

5.7.1. Great Britain: highly centralized; five stages (Early Years, Primary, Secondary, Further Education, and Higher Education

5.7.2. France: highly centralized; two public school systems (one for ordinary citizens and one for elite society

5.7.3. Japan: educational effectiveness; Double Schooling (two sets), traditional public school and informal school "study institution"

5.7.4. Germany: sorts children into one of three tracks (1. Blue collar/service positions 2. Lower level/white collar positions 3. Academic preparations/high level positions

5.7.5. Finland: high test scores; formative assessment; eliminate tracking; rigorous teacher education programs

6. Curriculum and Pedagogy

6.1. Approaches

6.1.1. Traditional: knowledge

6.1.2. Current: goals and objectives

6.2. Types of Curriculum

6.2.1. Humanist: idealist philosophy; knowledge of traditional liberal arts as the basis of an educated society

6.2.2. Social Efficiency: pragmatic; meet needs of students

6.2.3. Developmentalist: progressive; John Dewey and Jean Piaget emphasized process of teaching

6.2.4. Social Meliorist: social reconstructionist; change society and solve fundamental social problems

6.3. Influences

6.3.1. Pluralist Model of Political Power: equal say

6.3.2. Political Elite Model: disproportionate control

6.4. Sociology

6.4.1. Functionalist Theory: common social order

6.4.2. Conflict Theory: reflection of ideology

6.4.3. Hidden Curriculum: not written in official curriculum, yet still taught

6.4.4. Null Curriculum: specifically omitted from being taught

6.5. Traditions

6.5.1. Mimetic: didactic method of teaching

6.5.2. Transformative: change student intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally

6.5.3. Dialectic: question/answer session to transmit knowledge

7. Equality of Opportunity

7.1. Stratifications

7.1.1. Caste: agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religeon

7.1.2. Estate: agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of the family worth

7.1.3. Class: industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic pursuits

7.2. Social stratification in U.S.

7.2.1. Upper Class 1-3%

7.2.2. Upper Middle Class 15%

7.2.3. Lower Middle Class 25%

7.2.4. Working Class 40%

7.2.5. Underclass/Lower Class: 20%

7.3. The Coleman Report

7.3.1. Influential and controversial study based on an extensive survey of educational opportunity, mandated by the Civil Rights Act 1964, directed by sociologist James Coleman

7.3.2. Misinterpreted as an argument that "schools don't matter, only families matter"

7.3.3. Subsequent work designed to help identify the characteristics of schools that did matter

8. Educational Inequality

8.1. Functionalist Vision: "just society" is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation

8.2. Conflict Theorists: the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality because educational outcomes are strongly linked to family background

8.3. Interactionist theory: understand people within institutions such as families and schools interact on a daily basis

8.4. Student Centered/Extra-School: focus on factors outside of school

8.4.1. Genetic/Biological Differences Theory

8.4.2. Cultural Deprivation Theory

8.4.3. Cultural Difference Theory

8.5. School Centered/Within-School: focus on factors within the school

8.5.1. School financing, school climate, pedagogic practices, effective schools

8.5.2. High expectations

8.5.3. Strong, effective leadership

8.5.4. Accountability

8.5.5. High degree of instructional time on task

8.5.6. Flexibility

8.5.7. Close monitoring of student learning

9. Educational Reform

9.1. A Nation at Risk

9.1.1. Educational excellence through increased educational standards

9.1.2. Excellence and equity in schools

9.1.3. Clarity educational goals

9.1.4. Develop a common core curriculum

9.1.5. Eliminate tracking programs

9.1.6. Major changes in vocational education

9.1.7. Teach about technology

9.1.8. Increase duration and intensity of academic learning

9.1.9. Recruit, train, retain academically able teachers

9.2. A Nation Prepared

9.2.1. TEP programs lack rigor; reorganize academic and professional components of TEP programs

9.2.2. Teaching, leadership, management

9.2.3. Parental involvement and choice in schools

9.2.4. Student readiness for school (Preschoolers)

9.2.5. School facilities being fully utilized

9.2.6. Quality colleges and accountability for learning

9.3. Goals 2000

9.3.1. All children will start school ready to learn

9.3.2. High school graduation rates will increase to at least 90%

9.3.3. American students will leave grades 4, 8, 12 demonstrate competency in challenging subject matter

9.3.4. U.S. students will be first in the world in math and science

9.3.5. Every adult American will be literate

9.3.6. Every school in America will be free of drugs and violence

9.4. No Child Left Behind

9.4.1. Annual testing

9.4.2. Report school by school data on student test performance

9.4.3. States sets Adequate Yearly Progress goals: don't meet them for two years="in need of improvement;" subsequent failure= subject to restructuring

9.4.4. Highly qualified teachers

9.5. Race to the Top

9.5.1. Adopting standards and assessments that prepare students to succeed in college and workplace

9.5.2. Improve instruction

9.5.3. Recruiting, developing, rewarding, retaining effective teachers and principals

9.5.4. Turning around the lowest-achieving schools

10. Foundations of Education

10.1. Main Education Problems

10.1.1. Achievement gaps Social class Race/ethnicity Gender

10.1.2. Crisis in urban education Inequity in school financing Staffing crisis

10.1.3. Decline in literacy Adoption of national standards Balancing higher standards Development of core curriculum

10.1.4. Assessment issues High stakes testing

10.2. Foundations Perspective

10.2.1. History

10.2.2. Philosophy

10.2.3. Politics

10.2.4. Sociology