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ED 302 by Mind Map: ED 302

1. 4 educational problems

1.1. 1. Achievement Gaps

1.2. 2. Crisis in Urban Education

1.3. 3. Decline in literacy

1.4. 4. Assessment issues

2. 4 components of understanding education

2.1. 1. History of education

2.2. 2. Philosophy of education

2.3. 3. Politics of philosophy

2.4. 4. Sociology of education

3. History of education

3.1. Old deluder satan law: Historical first step toward compulsory government-directed public education in the U.S.

3.2. New England Primer: was the first reading textbook designed for the American colonies.

3.3. Noah Websters American spelling book was published in 1783: Is now know as our Websters dictionary

3.4. Land ordinance act: Mandated that every town had to have a school in it and that people had to pay taxes for it

3.5. Kalamazoo case established the use of taxes to fund public schools

3.6. Plessy Vs. Ferguson in a whole is "separate but equal" schools

3.6.1. Brown Vs. Board of education overturned Plessy Vs. Ferguson, determining that separate but equal was unconstitutional

3.7. Title lX prohibited discrimination on the basis of sex in public education

4. Historical Interpretations of U.S. Education

4.1. American school system has expanded over the years to serve more students for longer time periods than any other country in the modern world.

4.2. Conservatives

4.2.1. Argue that liberal pursuits of social and political objectives have resulted in significant damage to the traditional academic goals of schools.

4.3. Democratic-Liberals

4.3.1. Believe that each period of educational expansion involved liberal reformers who helped expand educational opportunities to larger portions of the population.

4.4. Radical/Revisionist

4.4.1. Their interpretation of the history of American education reform is pessimistic due to the ongoing lack of educational equality.

5. Sociology of education

5.1. Functional Theories

5.1.1. Functional sociologists assess the interdependence of the social system; viewing society as a machine where one part works with another to make society work.

5.2. Interactional Theories

5.2.1. Interactional sociologists take a up close view of the interactions between students/students and teachers/teachers. Focuses on behaviors and environmental contexts rather than on mental processes or academic achievement.

5.3. Conflict Theories

5.3.1. Conflict sociologists assert that society is not held together by shared values alone, but on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on subordinate groups Inequality exists because those in control of a disproportionate share of society's resources actively defend their advantages.

5.4. Social conflict theory is marxist

5.4.1. Based social theory which argues that social classes within society have differing amounts of material and non-material resources (such as the wealthy vs. the poor)

6. Schools as Organizations

6.1. Systems

6.1.1. Decentralized: Each state maintains autonomy, authority and responsibilty

6.1.2. Consolidation: Education is more efficient and cost effective

6.1.3. Schools are separate social organizations due to many factors

6.1.4. No child Left Behind requires 3 qualifications college degree, full certification in field, and demonstrate knowledge of academic content.

6.2. Countries

6.2.1. Finland: Highest Educated country; formative assessment; rigorous teaching programs

6.2.2. Great Britain: 5 stages of education; highly centralized national curriculum and system of national assessment

6.2.3. Japan: Double Schooling; includes 2 sets of educational systems, traditional and informal schools

6.2.4. Germany: Sorts children and racks them; 3 educational systems: blue collar, white collar, and academic preperation

6.2.5. France: Government controls classrooms; highly stratified with 2 public systems, one for ordinary systems and elite society

7. Explanations of education inequality....

7.1. Functionalist

7.1.1. Vision a "just society" where one individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation. They also expect that the process of schooling will produce unequal results; but that the results should be due to individual differences between students, not on group differences.

7.2. Conflict Theorists

7.2.1. Believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality.

7.3. Interactionist Theorists

7.3.1. Suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as families or schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure.

8. Student Centered or Extra-School explanations of inequalities focus on factors outside of school such as family, the community, culture, peer groups and the individual student.

9. School Centered or within-school explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as the teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, ability grouping, school climate and teacher expectations.

10. Race to the top

10.1. Adopting standards and assessments that prepare students to succeed in college and the workplace and to compete in the global economy.

10.1.1. Building data systems that measure student growth and success and inform teachers and principals about how they can improve instruction. Recruiting, developing, rewarding and retaining effective teachers and principals. Also turning around the lowest-achieving schools.

11. Learning styles

11.1. Collections of personal characteristics, strengths, and preferences, describing how individuals acquire, store, and process information.

12. Learning style factors

12.1. Information processing modes, environmental and instructional preferences, cognitive capabilities, and personality features.

12.1.1. Some people can show a balance between bot or can show strengths and weaknesses.

13. 3 ways of teaching

13.1. Provide dynamic and interesting ways to introduce and approach a topic

13.2. Offering relevant analogies-connecting new topics to ideas and concepts that are more readily familiar to students.

13.3. Providing multiple representations of the central and core ideas of topic.

14. Philosophy of Education

14.1. Realism

14.1.1. -Teacher Led -Traditional -Basic learning -Direct Instruction -Orderly classroom -Focuses on core curriculum Example: Class is focused on the teacher. Teacher is telling students what to do and teaching out of a textbook.

14.2. Idealism

14.2.1. -Teacher Led -Traditional -Focus on literature -No textbooks -Electives are unnecessary -Follows the great books Example: Class is focused on the teacher. Teacher will focus more on literature and possibly the bible.

14.3. Pragmatism

14.3.1. -Student Led -Group learning -Learning by doing -Project based learning Example: Teacher asks the students what they would like to learn about. Teacher can give 5 topics to choose from and the class can get into groups and research one of the topics.

14.4. Neo-marxism

14.4.1. -Student Led -Focus on bettering society -Flexible curriculum -Social awareness -Creates problem solving Example: Students can choose what they may want to do to better society. Teacher can over view ideas and agree on which would be best. Possible idea could be raising money for a cause.

14.5. Existentialism

14.5.1. -Student Led -Students chooses' own pace -Students grade and evaluate themselves - Individuality -Shuns traditional teaching Example: Teacher basically steers away from traditional curriculums. Focuses more on the inner side of the students. Dancing, meditating, being free of the normal could be some examples.

15. 4 Types of Curriculum

15.1. Humanist Curriculum

15.1.1. Based from the idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts as the basis of an educated society.

15.2. Social Efficiency Curriculum

15.2.1. Belief that different groups of students have different needs, and should receive different types of education to meet those specific needs.

15.3. Developmentalist Curriculum

15.3.1. Based on progressive educational practices. Focuses on the needs and interests of each individual child at each of the particular developmental stages.

15.4. Social Meliorist Curriculum

15.4.1. Based on the social reconstructionist theory that schools should work to change society and help solve fundamental social problems.

16. The Sociology of Curriculum

16.1. Functionalist Theory

16.1.1. The role of curriculum is to give students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability, to further the common social order

16.2. Conflict Theory

16.2.1. Conflict theorists believe curriculum is a reflection of ideology; they do not believe that schools teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect.

16.3. Hidden Theory

16.3.1. Includes norms which are taught to students through implicit rules and messages, but is not written in the official curriculum.

16.4. Null Theory

16.4.1. The curriculum that is specifically omitted from being taught in schools.

17. Traditions in Pedagogic Practices

17.1. Mimetic Tradition

17.1.1. Based on the view that the purpose of education is to relay specific knowledge to students. This practice uses the didactic method of teaching which relies heavily on lectures or presentations as the main form of communication.

17.2. Transformative Tradition

17.2.1. Views the purpose of education as having the ability to change each student is a meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally.

17.3. Dialectic Tradition

17.3.1. Teaching is the means of communication in this approach to curriculum, with the use of questioning and question/answer sessions as the main vehicle to transmit knowledge.

18. First wave of Education Reform

18.1. Focused on: The Need...For excellence and equity in schools, clarify educational goals, develop a common core curriculum, eliminate tracking programs, major changes in vocational education, education to teach about technology, increase duration and intensity of academic learning, and recruit, train, and retain more academically able teachers.

19. Second wave of Education Reform

19.1. Focused on: Teaching leadership and management, parental involvement and choice in schools, student readiness for school (for preschoolers), school facilities being fully utilized, and quality colleges and accountability for learning,

20. The carnegie report entitled A Nation Prepared: Teachers for a 21st century focused on the educational quality of the teacher education programs.

20.1. It asserted: 1. Teacher education programs lack rigor and intellectual demands which would negatively impact success and student achievement in schools. 2. The necessity to reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs. 3. The need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates.

21. Goals 2000

21.1. Basically a list of goals set by a president that wanted to be reached and never did. It failed.

22. No Child Left Behind

22.1. Annual Testing required of students in grades 3 to 8 in reading, math, plus at least on test in grades 10 to 12 with science testing.

22.1.1. States and districts are required to report school by school data on student test performance broken out in different races States must set AYP goals for each school. Also schools must have highly qualified teachers for teachers in the core academic subjects.