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ED 302 by Mind Map: ED 302

1. 8/26/15 FOUNDATIONS OF EDUCATION (Ch1)

1.1. 4 Main Educational Problems

1.1.1. Achievement Gaps

1.1.1.1. Social class, Race/Ethnicity, and Gender

1.1.2. Crisis in Urban Education

1.1.2.1. Inequality in school financing and Staffing crisis

1.1.3. Decline in Literacy

1.1.3.1. Adoption of national standards, Balancing higher standards, and Development of core curriculum

1.1.4. Assessment Issues

1.1.4.1. They don't show what a child knows

2. 9/2/15 CHAPTER 2

2.1. The specific purposes of education are political, social, economic, and intellectual.

2.2. The Political purpose of education is to instill patriotism, prepare citizens who will assimilate diverse cultural groups into a common political order, and to teach children the basic laws of society.

2.3. The Social purpose of education is to help solve perceived problems in society.

2.4. The Economic purpose of education is to prepare students for occupational roles and to select, train, and allocate individuals into the division of labor.

2.5. The Intellectual purpose of school is to teach basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and mathematics.

2.6. Traditional views of school assert that schools are necessary for the transmission of traditional U.S. values in society, such as hard work, individual initiative, and family unity.

2.7. Progressive views assert that schools are central to solving social problems, essential to the development of individuals, and an integral part of democratic society.

2.8. Perspectives of Education:

2.8.1. Conservative-individual initiative and hard work.

2.8.2. Liberal- Equality, government involvement to insure equality, progressivism.

2.8.3. Radical- Believe that capitalist system is root of social problems.

2.8.4. Neo-Liberal_ Combo of conservative and liberal, attribute failures to teacher unions, teacher tenure, layoffs based on seniority, absence of school, teacher, and student accountability.

2.9. CONSERVATIVES:

2.9.1. See the role as providing educational training to ensure talented and hard-working students receive the tools to maximize economic and social productivity.

2.9.2. Believe decline of standards, literacy, values, and authority is the problem with education.

2.9.3. Support the return to basics, return to traditional curriculum, and accountability.

2.9.4. Looks at social evolution as a process that enables the strongest individuals and/or groups to survive.

2.9.5. Human progress is dependent on individual initiative and drive.

2.9.6. The free market economy of capitalism is viewed as the most productive economic system.

2.10. TRADITIONAL:

2.10.1. View the schools as necessary to the transmission of the traditional values of the US

2.10.2. Hard work, family unity, individual initiative

2.10.3. Associated most with the Liberal and Conservative viewpoints.

2.10.4. Assessment is norm-referenced, external, and graded.

2.10.5. http://www.wingraschool.org/who/progressive.htm

2.10.6. http://www.swaraj.org/shikshantar/resources_dewey.html

3. 9/9/15 CHAPTER 3

3.1. Old Deluder Satan Law

3.1.1. The church said that everyone has to learn to read so they can read the bible and keep the devil away.

3.2. 1785, 1787 Land Ordinance Act, Northwest Ordinance

3.2.1. Every town had to have a school and funding for the schools came from property taxes.

3.3. School Funding Now

3.3.1. School funding these days comes from state funds, local sales tax, and a small amount is from the federal government.

4. 9/16/15 CHAPTER 4

4.1. 3 Major Theories About The Relationships Between Schools And Sociology:

4.1.1. FUNCTIONAL THEORIES:

4.1.1.1. Access the interdependence of the social system; viewing society as a machine where one part works with another to make society work.

4.1.2. INTERACTIONAL THEORIES:

4.1.2.1. Take a Cclose-up view of the interactions between students/sudents, students/teachers, and teachers/teachers.

4.1.3. CONFICT THEORIES:

4.1.3.1. Conflict socioligists assert that society is not held together by shared values alone, but on the ability of dominate groups to impose their will on subordinate groups.

4.2. Levels of Sociology in Education:

4.2.1. #1 SOCIETAL LEVEL:

4.2.1.1. Structure of dominance in society -> Societal ideologies

4.2.2. #2 INSTITUTIONAL LEVEL: (the school)

4.2.2.1. Educational structures <-> Educational ideologies, concepts

4.2.3. #3 INTERPERSONAL LEVEL: (the classroom)

4.2.3.1. Teachers` expectations -> Educational interactions

4.2.4. #4 INTRAPYSCHIC LEVEL: (the student)

4.2.4.1. Educational outcomes, Cognitive, Noncognitive

5. 9/23/15 CHAPTER 5

5.1. Philosophies Of Education

5.1.1. Realism/Essentialism

5.1.1.1. Teacher-Led Classroom

5.1.1.2. Emphasize the importance of transferring knowledge

5.1.1.3. Traditional

5.1.1.4. Back to the basics (reading, writing, math)

5.1.1.5. Direct instruction

5.1.1.6. Orderly classroom enviroment

5.1.1.7. Syllogism: deductive reasoning

5.1.1.8. Empirical point of view

5.1.1.9. Tabula rasa: "blank slates"

5.1.1.10. Core curriculum

5.1.2. Idealism/Perennialism

5.1.2.1. Teacher-Led Classrooms

5.1.2.2. Traditional

5.1.2.3. Focuses on classical literature

5.1.2.4. Shuns textbooks

5.1.2.5. Electives are viewed as unnecessary

5.1.3. Progressivism/Pragmatism

5.1.3.1. Student-Led Classroom

5.1.3.2. Liberal

5.1.3.3. Inquiry method of learning

5.1.3.4. Group/Collaborative learning

5.1.3.5. Learning by doing

5.1.3.6. Project-based learning

5.1.3.7. Organizes schools around the concerns, curiosity, and real-world problems

5.1.3.8. Teacher is facilitator

5.1.4. Neo-Marxism/Social-Reconstructionist

5.1.4.1. Student-Led Classroom

5.1.4.2. Radical

5.1.4.3. Focuses on bettering society

5.1.4.4. Flexible curriculum

5.1.4.5. Social awareness

5.1.4.6. Create problem-solvers

5.1.5. Existentialism

5.1.5.1. WOOL CHICKEN 8D

5.1.5.2. Student-Led Classroom

5.1.5.3. Radical

5.1.5.4. Students choose their own pace of learning

5.1.5.5. Students grade/evaluate themselves

5.1.5.6. Shuns traditional curriculum

5.1.5.7. Individuality and introspection

5.1.5.8. Purpose of education is to help students find the meaning of their lives

6. 9/30/15 chapter 6

6.1. Schools are powerful organizations that profoundly affect the lives of those children and adults who come in contact with them.

6.2. To understand education, one must look beyond the classroom itself and the interaction between teachers and students to the larger world where different interest groups compete with each other in terms of ideology, finances, and power.

6.3. School processes refer to the way in which school cultures are created and maintained.

6.4. Decentralized school system-each state maintains its autonomy, authority, and responsibility regarding education. The federal government has very little input regarding individual schools.

6.5. Consolidation and Centralization of schools-during the past 80 years schools in the United States have consolidation so that education is more efficient and cost efficient.

6.6. A negative impact of consolidation and centralization is that schools have become less diverse, more bureaucratic, and less democratic.

6.7. Racial segregation, such as in public schools, which happens "by facto" rather than by legal requirement is considered de facto segregation. For example, many times the concentration of minorities in certain neighborhoods produces neighborhood schools that are predominantly minority, or segregated in fact (de facto), although not by law (de jure).

6.8. Willard Waller, an educational sociologist, asserted that schools are separate social organizations due to:

6.8.1. Schools have a definite population.

6.8.2. Schools have a clearly defined political structure.

6.8.3. Schools represent a central network of social relationships.

6.8.4. Schools are permeated with a "we" ideal rather than a "me" ideal.

6.8.5. Schools each have a definite culture that is specific to the individual school.

6.9. The No Child Left Behind Act mandates that teachers must be highly qualified through meeting 3 qualifications:

6.9.1. #1 Hold a college degree.

6.9.2. #2 Full certification in field of study.

6.9.3. Demonstrate knowledge of academic content in the field of study/certification.

7. 10/13/15 CHAPTER 7

7.1. TRADITIONAL APPROACHES view curriculum as objective bodies on knowledge and examine ways in which this knowledge may be designed, taught, and evaluated.

7.1.1. Traditional approaches to curriculum view the current curriculum as a body of knowledge and ways this knowledge may be designed, taught, and assessed.

7.1.1.1. Current approaches to curriculum focus on designing curriculum around goals and objectives, and to assess it in terms of students learning.

7.2. There are 4 types of curriculum:

7.2.1. The HUMANIST CURRICULUM is based from the idealist philosophy that knowledge of the traditional liberal arts as the basis of an educated society.

7.2.1.1. This view of curriculum purports that the purpose of education is to present students the best of what has ever been taught or written.

7.2.2. SOCIAL EFFICENCY CURRICULUM is pragmatic/progressive in nature, with a belief that different groups of students have different needs, and should receive different types of education to meet those specific needs.

7.2.3. DEVELOPMENTALIST CURRICULUM is also based on progressive educational practices. John Dewey and Jean Piaget emphasized the importance of the process of teaching along with the curricular content.

7.2.3.1. This curriculum focuses on the needs and interests of each individual child at each of the particular developmental stages.

7.2.4. SOCIAL MELIORIST CURRICULUM is based on the social reconstructionist theory that schools should work to change society and help solve fundamental social problems.

7.3. Influences on Curriculum:

7.3.1. Pluralist Model of Political Power> Argues that the political system in the U.S. is not controlled by any one influence and control.

7.3.2. Political Elite Model> Argues that a small number of powerful groups dominate the political landscape and have disproportionate control over decision making.

7.4. The Sociology of Curriculum:

7.4.1. Functionalist Theory> The role of curriculum is to give the students the knowledge, language, and values to ensure social stability and to further the common social order.

7.4.2. Conflict Theory> Conflict theorists believe curriculum is a reflection of ideology; the do not believe that schools teach liberal values such as tolerance and respect (ie. hidden curriculum).

7.4.3. The "Hidden Curriculum" includes norms which are taught to students through implicit rules and messages, but is not written in the official curriculum.

7.4.3.1. Examples- learning how to walk in a line, how to address teahcers, etc.

7.4.4. The "Null Curriculum' is the curriculum that is specifically omitted from being taught in schools.

7.5. Traditions in Pedagogic Practices:

7.5.1. MIMETIC TRADTION is based on the view that the purpose of education is to relay specific knowledge to students.

7.5.1.1. This practice uses the DIDATIC METHOD of teaching which relies heavily on lectures or presentations as the main form of communication.

7.5.2. TRANSFORMATIVE TRADITION views the purpose of education as having the ability to change each student in a meaningful way, including intellectually, creatively, spiritually, and emotionally.

7.5.3. DIALECTIVE TEACHING is the means of communication in this approach to curriculum, with the use of questioning and question/answer sessions as the main vehicle to transmit knowledge.

8. 10/21/15 CHAPTER 8

8.1. CASTE STRATIFICATION- occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of some strict criteria such as race or religion

8.2. ESTATE STRATIFICATION- occurs in agrarian societies where social level is defined in terms of the hierarchy of family worth

8.3. CLASS STRATIFICATION- occurs in industrial societies that define social level in terms of a hierarchy of differential achievement by individuals, especially in economic persuits

8.4. SOCIAL SREATIFICATION IN THE U.S.:

8.4.1. Upper Class: 1-3% of the population

8.4.2. Upper Middle Class: 15% of the population

8.4.3. Lower Middle Class: 25% of the population

8.4.4. Working Class: 40% of the population

8.4.5. Underclass/Lower Class: 20% of the population

8.5. ACHIEVEMENT GAP refers to the observed, persistent disparity of educational measures between the performance of groups of students (especially groups defined by socioeconomic status/ethnicity or gender).

8.5.1. Females achieve HIGHER levels in reading at ages 9, 13, and 17 but achieve LOWER levels in science at ages 9, 13, and 17. This is an example of sociological research that illustrates the impact of achievement gaps in schools on equal educational opportunities.

9. CHAPTER 9:

9.1. The Functionalist Vision of a "just society" is one where individual talent and hard work are based on universal principles of evaluation.

9.1.1. Functionalist expect that the process of schooling will produce unequal results, but that the results should be due to individual differences between students, not on group differences.

9.2. Conflict theorists believe that the role of schooling is to reproduce instead of eliminate inequality (this assertion is consistent with data that shows educational outcomes that are strongly linked to family background).

9.3. Internationalists theory suggests that we must understand how people within institutions such as families or schools interact on a daily basis in order to comprehend the factors explaining academic success or failure.

9.3.1. SCHOOL CENTERED or EXTRA-SCHOOL explanations of inequality focus on factors outside of school such as family, the community, culture, peer groups, and the individual student.

9.3.2. SCHOOL CENTERED or WITHIN-SCHOOL explanations of inequalities focus on factors within the school such as the teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, ability grouping, school climate, and teacher expectations.

9.4. STUDENT CENTERED EXPLANATIONS OF EDUCATIONAL INEQUALITY:

9.4.1. Genetic or Biological Differences Theory: The genetic or biological argument is the most controversial Arthur Jensen (1969) argued that unequal performance due to genetic differences in intelligence

9.4.2. Cultural Deprivation Theories: Argued that students came to school without the requisite intellectual and social skills necessary for school success Working class and nonwhite families seen as lacking the cultural resources, having a deprived culture and inappropriate values for success Project Head Start based on this theory

9.4.3. Cultural Differences Theories:

9.4.3.1. First theory asserts that African American children do less well in school because they adapt to their oppressed position in the class structure

9.4.3.2. Second theory views working-class and non-white students as resisting the dominate culture of schools.

9.4.3.3. The Third theory asserts that Asian Americans possess family values that place great emphasis on educational achievement along with high expectations for children.

9.4.4. School Centered Explanations of Educational inequality: school financing, effective versus ineffective schools, school climate, and pedagogic practices.

9.4.5. CHARACTERISTICS OF EFFECTIVE SCHOOLS:

9.4.5.1. High expectations for students by teachers and administrators.

9.4.5.2. Strong, effective leadership by school administration.

9.4.5.3. Accountability processes for both students and teachers.

9.4.5.4. Close monitoring of student learning.

9.4.5.5. A high degree of instructional time on task.

9.4.5.6. Flexibility for teachers to adapt to new situations and solve problems.

10. CHAPTER 10:

10.1. A Nation at Risk: the First Wave of Educational Reform

10.1.1. The first wave of education reform in the United States stressed the need for increased educational excellence through increased educational standards.

10.1.2. The Reform Focused On:

10.1.2.1. The need for excellence and equity in schools.

10.1.2.2. The need to clarify educational goals.

10.1.2.3. The need to develop a common core curriculum.

10.1.2.4. The need to eliminate tracking programs.

10.1.2.5. The need for major changes in vocational education.

10.1.2.6. The need for education to teach about technology.

10.1.2.7. The need to increase duration and intensity of academic learning.

10.1.2.8. The needs to recruit, train, and retain more academically able teachers.

10.2. The second wave of reform was based on the recommendations made at the State Governor`s Conference.

10.2.1. The Reform Focused On:

10.2.1.1. Teaching, leadership, and management.

10.2.1.2. Parental involvement and choice in schools.

10.2.1.3. Student readiness for school.

10.2.1.4. School facilities being fully utilized.

10.2.1.5. Quality colleges and accountability for learning.

10.2.1.6. The Carnegie report entitled A Nation Prepared: Teachers for a 21st Century focused on the educational quality of teacher education programs. It asserted:

10.2.1.6.1. Teacher education programs lacked rigor and intellectual demands which would negatively impact success and student achievement in schools.

10.2.1.6.2. The necessity to reorganize the academic and professional components of teacher education programs.

10.2.1.6.3. The need to attract and retain competent teacher candidates.

10.3. GOALS 2000:

10.3.1. GOAL 1-All children will start school ready to learn.

10.3.2. GOAL 2- High school graduation rates will increase to at least 90%.

10.3.3. GOAL 3- American students will leave grades 4,8, and 12, having demonstrated competency in challenging subject matter so that they would be prepared for responsible citizenship, further learning, and productive employment in our modern economy.

10.3.4. GOAL 4- U.S. students will be first in the world in math and science achievement.

10.3.5. GOAL 5- Every adult in America will be literate and will possess the skills necessary to compete in a global economy.

10.3.6. GOAL 6- Every school in America will be free of drugs and violence and will offer a disciplined environment conductive to learning.

10.4. No Child Left Behind:

10.4.1. Annual testing required of students in grades 3 through 8 in reading and math, plus at least one test in grades 10 through 12 with science testing. Graduation rates are used as a secondary indicator for high schools.

10.4.2. States and districts are required to report school by school data on student test performance broken out by whether the student is African American, Hispanic American, Native American, Asian American, white non-Hispanic, special education, limited English proficiency, and/or low income.

10.4.3. States must set adequate yearly progress (AYP) goals for each school.

10.4.4. Schools that don`t meet AYP for two years are labeled "In Need of Improvement". This means that schools must offer the students the option to go to another public school and/or receive federally funded tutoring. Funds would also be made available for teacher professional development. If the school does not meet subsequent year`s AYP, it would be subject to restructuring.

10.4.5. Schools must have "highly qualified teachers" for teachers in the core academic subjects.

10.5. Race To The Top:

10.5.1. Suggestions for Educational Reform-

10.5.1.1. Adopting standards and assessments that prepare students to succeed in college and the workplace and to compete in the global economy.

10.5.1.2. Building data systems that measure students= growth and success and inform teachers and principals about how they can improve instruction.

10.5.1.3. Recruiting, developing, rewarding, and retaining effective teachers and principals.

10.5.1.4. Turning around the lowest-achieving schools.