American Revolution

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American Revolution by Mind Map: American Revolution

1. Influential Documents

1.1. Virginia's Declaration of Rights

1.1.1. Guaranteed freedom to citizens, including the right to rise up against tyranny

1.2. Virginia's Statute for Religious Freedom

1.2.1. Granted Virginians the right to practice whichever religion they chose

2. Enlightenment

2.1. Thomas Hobbes

2.1.1. One Absolute ruler is the best form of government.

2.2. Baron de Montesquieu

2.2.1. Separation of Powers

2.3. Jean-Jacques Rousseau

2.3.1. Checks and Balances

2.4. Voltaire

2.4.1. Freedom Of Speech

2.5. John Locke

2.5.1. Social Contract Theory

3. American Self Government

3.1. The Mayflower Compact

3.1.1. First self government in colonies

3.1.2. Town Meetings

3.2. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut

3.2.1. Rights of the individual

3.2.2. All eligible men can vote

3.3. House Of Burgesses

3.3.1. Elected Representatives

3.3.2. First legislature in the colonies

3.4. Albany Plan of Union

3.4.1. Federal government

3.4.2. First push for American Independence

4. British Taxation

4.1. George Grenville

4.1.1. Stamp Act

4.1.2. Prime Minister of Great Britain

4.2. Vice-Admiralty Court in Halifax

4.2.1. Royal Judge, not local jury

4.2.2. After Stamp Act, was used to try criminals.

4.3. Sugar Act

4.3.1. Taxed major agricultural imports and exports

4.3.2. Regulated the export of lumber and iron

5. Challenging Authority

5.1. The First Great Awakening

5.1.1. Jonathan Edwards

5.1.1.1. Powerful sermons

5.1.1.2. Emotion over reason

5.1.2. George Whitefield

5.1.2.1. Anglican preacher

5.1.2.2. Emotion over reason

5.1.3. Pietism

5.1.3.1. Individual's devoutness

5.1.3.2. Emotional Union with God

5.1.4. Revivals

5.1.4.1. Meetings of prayer and preaching

5.2. The Glorious Revolution

5.2.1. English Bill of Rights

5.2.1.1. Freedom of Speech

5.2.1.2. Monarchs are not above Parliament

5.2.2. Prevented Catholic Dynasty

5.2.2.1. King James fled, allowing Mary to assume the throne.

6. Rule of Law

6.1. Magna Carta

6.1.1. No man is above the rule of law, monarchs included

6.2. English Bill of Rights

6.2.1. Freedom of Speech

6.2.2. Monarchs cannot impose taxes with the consent of Parliament

6.2.3. Monarchs are not superior to Parliament.

6.3. Salutary Neglect

6.3.1. Britain did not enforce laws in the colonies

6.3.2. Colonial self-government

7. American Respnoses

7.1. Stamp Act Congress

7.1.1. First Congress to gather

7.1.2. Only 9 colonies present

7.2. Sons of Liberty

7.2.1. Boycott British goods

7.2.2. Non-Importation Agreements in the Colonies

7.3. Boston Tea Party

7.3.1. colonists dresses as natives

7.3.2. threw British tea in the Boston Harbor

7.3.3. Protesting Tea Tax

7.4. Declaration of Rights and Grievances

7.4.1. Written by Stamp Act Congress

7.4.2. Listed complaints about the Crown

7.5. Non-importation Agreements

7.5.1. Boycott British goods

7.5.2. No more importing from Britain

7.6. Revenue Act

7.6.1. Passed by Parliament to pay for French and Indian War

7.6.2. Placed tax on goods such as sugar and molasses

7.7. Continental Association

7.7.1. Created by First Continental Congress

7.7.2. Goal was to implement a trade boycott against Great Britain

7.8. Committees of Correspondance

7.8.1. Communication between colonies

7.8.2. Used to make plans for resisting the British

7.9. Gaspee Affair

7.9.1. Ship called Gaspee used to intercept smugglers

7.9.2. Searched ships and seized goods without warrant

7.9.3. Some colonists rebelled and seized and burned the ship when it ran aground after a storm

7.10. Olive Branch Petition

7.10.1. Stated that colonist were still loyal

7.10.2. Asked the King to call off hostilities and resolve things peacefully

7.11. Suffolk Resolves

7.11.1. Encouraged colonists not to obey the Coercive Acts

7.11.2. Called for boycotts on British goods

8. British Policies

8.1. Mercantilism

8.1.1. Country should sell more than it buys

8.1.2. Prevented colonies from trading with countries other than Britain

8.2. French and Indian War

8.2.1. Land conflict between Britain and France

8.2.2. Britain won and gained land

8.2.3. Britain was deeply in dept after the war

8.2.3.1. Led to increased taxes on the colonies

8.3. Proclamation of 1763

8.3.1. Stated the Appalachian Mountain would be the western border for colonists. All land beyond belonged to natives.

8.3.2. Colonial Outrage. They felt that Britain was holding them back from expanding

8.4. Declaratory Act

8.4.1. Declared that Parliament had the power to make laws that affected the colonies

8.4.2. Was passes after colonies stated that Parliament could not control them without proper representaion

8.5. Townshend Acts

8.5.1. Revenue Act

8.5.1.1. New taxes

8.5.1.2. Writs of Assistance

8.6. Writs of Assistance

8.6.1. Type of search warrant

8.6.2. Allowed soldiers to search any location at any given time

8.7. Quartering Act

8.7.1. Required local officials to house British troops

8.8. Tea Act

8.8.1. Refunded 3/4 of the taxes on East India Company

8.8.2. Allowed East India Company to bypass colonial merchants that distributed tea

8.9. Coercive/intolerable Acts

8.9.1. Quartering Act

8.9.2. Boston Port Act

8.9.2.1. Shut down Boston's port until destroyed tea was paid for

8.9.3. Massachusetts Government Act

8.9.3.1. All government official would be appointed rather than elected

8.9.4. Administration of Justice Act

8.9.4.1. All trials for British soldiers and official would be transferred to Britain, to protect them from American juries

8.9.5. Quebec Act

8.9.5.1. A governor and council appointed by the king would run Quebec

8.10. Currency Act

8.10.1. Banned use of paper money in the colonies because it lost value quickly

9. Revolutionary Events

9.1. Boston Massacre

9.1.1. Crowd of Colonists began harassing British troops

9.1.2. Soldiers called for help, and in the midst of the chaos soldiers began firing leading to the deaths of 5 people and leaving 6 others wounded

9.2. Siege of Boston

9.2.1. British took Boston, and fought dearly to keep it

9.2.2. Lost the city in the end, at the Battle of Bunker Hill

9.3. First Continental Congress

9.3.1. Issued the Declaration of Rights and Greivances

9.3.2. Continental Association

9.3.2.1. called for boycotts on British goods

9.4. Battles of Lexington and Concord

9.4.1. First battle of the Revolution

9.4.2. Set the whole war in motion

9.5. Second Continental Congress

9.5.1. Wrote the Declaration of Independence

9.5.2. Established a government for the colonies. "Articles of Confederation

9.6. "Common Sense"

9.6.1. Written by Thomas Paine

9.6.2. Pushed for Colonial independence

9.7. Declaration of Independence

9.7.1. Stated why the colonies should be loyal

10. Articles of Confederation

10.1. Created a weak central government

10.1.1. Could not tax states

10.1.2. Could not coin money

10.1.3. Could not regulate commerce

10.2. Too much power to the states

10.2.1. Shay's Rebellion

10.2.1.1. Series of protests against taxes imposed by states

10.2.1.2. revealed that the federal government did not have the power it needed

10.3. Land Ordinance of 1785

10.3.1. Attempt by the central government to raise money, since they could not tax

10.4. Northwest Ordinance

10.4.1. Created the first organized land area of the United States

11. Constitution of the United States

11.1. Important Concepts of the Constitution

11.1.1. Separation of Powers

11.1.1.1. Judicial, legislative, and executive powers must lie in separate bodies to prevent one branch from becoming too powerful

11.1.2. Federalism

11.1.2.1. Strong central government

11.1.2.2. mostly sovereign states with designated powers

11.1.3. Limited Government

11.1.3.1. The power of government is limited only to what is necessary

11.1.4. Checks and Balances

11.1.4.1. Each branch has the power to check the others in order to balance powers

11.1.5. Popular Sovereignty

11.1.6. Democracy

11.1.6.1. Power lies primarily in the people: voting on laws, issues, etc

11.1.7. Republic

11.1.7.1. Officials are chosen by the people to represent them in government

11.2. Branches of Government

11.2.1. Judicial Branch

11.2.1.1. Interpret laws

11.2.1.2. Supreme Court

11.2.2. Executive Branch

11.2.2.1. Enforces laws

11.2.2.2. President with many rolls

11.2.3. Legislative Branch

11.2.3.1. Makes Laws

11.2.3.2. Bicameral Legislature

11.2.3.2.1. House Of Representatives

11.2.3.2.2. Senate

11.3. Important Compromises

11.3.1. Great Compromise

11.3.1.1. The Virginia Plan

11.3.1.1.1. Representation based on population

11.3.1.2. The New Jersey Plan

11.3.1.2.1. Equal Represetation

11.3.1.2.2. Proposed by William Paterson

11.3.1.3. The Connecticut Plan

11.3.1.3.1. Bicameral Legislature; one body of equal representation; one body with population based representation

11.3.1.3.2. Proposed by Roger Sherman; this was the final plan for the legislature

11.3.2. Three-Fifths Compromise

11.3.2.1. Slave states

11.3.2.1.1. Wanted slaves counted in the census, because it would give them greater representation

11.3.2.2. Free States

11.3.2.2.1. Did not want slaves counted due to their small population of blacks

11.3.2.3. Compromise

11.3.2.3.1. For every 5 slaves, 3 would be counted in the census

11.4. Constitutional Covention

11.4.1. Founding Fathers

11.4.1.1. George Washington

11.4.1.1.1. President of the Convention

11.4.1.2. Benjamin Franklin

11.4.1.3. James Madison

11.4.1.3.1. Primary writer of the Constitution

11.4.1.4. Alexander Hamilton

11.4.1.4.1. Leader of the Federalists

11.4.1.5. John Adams

11.4.1.5.1. Not actually present at Convention

11.4.2. Ratification

11.4.2.1. Federalists

11.4.2.1.1. The Federalist Papers: written to convince states to ratify the Constitution

11.4.2.1.2. Supported the Constitution

11.4.2.1.3. Didn't feel that a Bill of Rights was needed, but eventually agreed to add it, in order to have complete support

11.4.2.1.4. Felt that without the Constitution, the country would become a mobocracy; the masses would rule wholey and totally, without consideration for what is actually necessary

11.4.2.2. Anti-Federalsits

11.4.2.2.1. Opposed the constitution; felt it gave too much power to the govt.

11.4.2.2.2. Wanted to add a Bill of Rights to guarantee freedoms to citizens

11.4.2.3. Bill of Rights

11.4.2.3.1. Added to ratify the Constitution

11.4.2.3.2. Guaranteed many rights to citizens and further limited the the governments power