Development from Infancy to Adolescence

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Development from Infancy to Adolescence by Mind Map: Development from Infancy to Adolescence

1. Newborn

1.1. Apgar Score

1.1.1. 0-10 rating to assess neurophysiological transition post-birth

1.2. Ballard Neonatal Examination

1.2.1. estimates gestational age

1.2.2. examine intrauterine growth

1.3. Brazelton Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale

1.3.1. visual attention

1.3.2. alertness

1.3.3. auditory responsivity

1.3.4. habituation

2. Infancy

2.1. Physical Growth

2.1.1. double birth weight by 4-5 months

2.1.2. rapid head growth, 6 cm during first 3 months

2.1.3. regulate temperature first days of life

2.1.4. rapid gro

2.2. Language Development

2.2.1. Initially communicate through:

2.2.1.1. gestures

2.2.1.2. crying

2.2.1.3. gazing

2.2.2. Produce consonant sounds (4-6 months)

2.2.3. Speak first words (10-12 months)

2.3. Motor Development

2.3.1. replace primitive reflexes within first few months with voluntary gross motor movement

2.3.1.1. rolling over (4-5 months)

2.3.1.2. sitting up independently (8-9 months)

2.3.1.3. walking (10-15 months)

2.3.2. coordinate sucking and swallowing

2.3.3. fine motor movements

2.3.3.1. progress proximal to distal

2.3.3.2. reaching and grabbing objects (3-6 months)

2.3.3.3. use hands to pick up an object (by 9 months)

2.3.3.4. pincer grasp-use thumb and forefinger to grasp an object (10-11 months)

2.4. Cognitive Development

2.4.1. touch, sight, and sound aid the infant in the development of observation and interaction

2.4.2. infant's behavior is due to reflexive responses and then develops into intentional responses (reaching for a toy)

2.4.3. object permanence

2.4.3.1. infant's ability to know an object exists even if they can't see it

2.4.3.2. Occurs around 7-9 months of age

2.5. Social-Emotional Development

2.5.1. Bonding

2.5.1.1. occurs immediately after birth

2.5.1.2. the feelings the parents have toward the baby

2.5.2. Attachment

2.5.2.1. develops later when infant can reciprocate feelings for parents

2.5.2.2. by 10 days infant can recognize smell of mother's breastmilk

2.5.2.3. infant is active participant

2.5.2.3.1. infant can recognize individuals and smile in response (5-6 weeks)

2.5.2.3.2. infant will show preference for someone by vocalizing and smiling (3-5 months)

2.5.3. Stranger Anxiety

2.5.3.1. seek parents when around unknown people (8-9 months)

2.5.3.2. occurs again at 12-15 months

2.5.4. Separation Anxiety

2.5.4.1. child learns cause and effect

2.5.4.2. infant can recognize when mother will leave and cries

2.5.4.3. occurs around 6-9 months of age

2.5.4.4. behavior continues to around 2-3 years of age

2.5.5. Temperament

2.5.5.1. Difficult infant

2.5.5.1.1. negative modd

2.5.5.1.2. trouble adapting

2.5.5.2. Slow to warm up infant

2.5.5.2.1. negative mood and then becomes more positive as the infant adapts to change

2.5.5.3. Easy infant

2.5.5.3.1. happy

2.5.5.3.2. adapts well to change

3. Toddlerhood

3.1. Motor Development

3.1.1. Ages 12-18 months

3.1.1.1. development of an upright posture, ability to shift weight, and alternate leg movements

3.1.1.2. develop the ability to process sensory information while moving

3.1.1.3. wide-based gait and short, waddling steps

3.1.1.4. Transitioning from crawl to walk

3.1.2. Ages 18-24+ months

3.1.2.1. learn to throw a ball

3.1.2.2. learn to self feed with utensils

3.1.3. 36 months

3.1.3.1. able to run, gallop, change direction with agility

3.1.3.2. Learn to identify objects with their functions

3.1.3.3. most toddlers have a heel-to-toe gait

3.1.3.4. have developed a large variation of both gross and fine motor skills

3.2. Socialemotional relationships

3.2.1. social referencing development

3.2.1.1. involves interaction and experience with people outside of family

3.2.2. Autonomy

3.2.2.1. strong desire for personal wishes fulfilled

3.2.2.2. develop gender identity

3.2.3. develop seconday emotions

3.2.3.1. embaressment, jealousy, pride, shame, guilt, envy

3.2.3.2. "tantrums" are common to compensate for lack of sufficient language skills to express feelings

3.2.4. Develop proficient social referencing cues

3.2.4.1. ability to recognize caregivers facial expressions for safe or unsafe social situations

3.2.5. Development of joint attention

3.2.5.1. awareness that others may have their own interests and behaviors

3.2.6. Development of "sense of self"

3.2.6.1. ability to create plans or do things independently

3.3. Language Development

3.3.1. Receptive language is more developed than expressive langauage

3.3.1.1. 36 months- development of grammar and short sentences

3.3.1.2. 24 months- express 50-100 words

3.3.1.3. 18 months- express 10-20 words

3.3.1.4. 12 months- use of "jargon"

3.4. Cognitive Development

3.4.1. objective permanence awareness develops

3.4.2. develops awareness of actions and reactions

3.4.2.1. learn behaviors can have certain consequences

3.4.3. Preoperational (solve problems)

3.4.4. development of long-term memory

3.4.4.1. learn to make associations to people and objects

3.4.5. development of 'play' increases

3.4.5.1. will incorporate the use to toys to represent real actions

3.4.5.2. engage in 'parallel play (will play independently while situated with others)

3.4.6. Develop egocentrism

3.4.6.1. may believe they are the center of all activities

3.4.6.2. inability to recognize/understand that others may have a different perspective

3.5. Physical Development

3.5.1. Demonstrate a developmental readiness for toilet training as well as an ability to follow adult instructions

3.5.1.1. Associate signals with the need to eliminate

3.5.1.2. Tighten the sphincter to prevent immediate elimination

3.5.1.3. Loosen the sphincter to permit elimination at proper moment

3.5.1.4. Voluntarily postpone elimination: as soon as 15 months or as late as 4 years

3.6. Health Risks

3.6.1. Phase: only eat certain foods

3.6.2. routine growth monitoring

3.6.3. risk of injury

3.6.3.1. increased motor ability/exploration

3.6.3.2. accidents, poisoning, drowning

3.6.3.3. child maltreatment

3.6.3.3.1. egocentric behavior

3.6.4. need parental guidance

3.6.4.1. manage temper tantrums

3.6.4.2. accident prevention

4. Preschool Years

4.1. Social-Emotional Development

4.1.1. Gender role identification

4.1.1.1. label self as "boy" vs "girl"

4.1.1.2. role schema for gender

4.1.1.3. social reinforcement of gender specific behavior

4.1.2. Sexual Play

4.1.2.1. natural result of cognitive, social, emotional development

4.1.2.2. what makes "boys" vs "girls" physiologically

4.1.2.3. toileting activities

4.1.2.4. teach "good" vs "bad" touching

4.1.3. Social conscience/morality

4.1.3.1. what is right vs wrong

4.1.3.1.1. avoid punishment

4.1.3.2. little understanding of intent

4.1.3.2.1. difficulty understanding another's perspective

4.1.3.2.2. can't focus on more than one event at time

4.1.3.3. >4 better understand rules

4.1.4. Autonomy

4.1.4.1. new tasks and experiences on own

4.1.4.2. more aware others' emotions

4.1.4.3. "Terrific Three's"

4.1.4.3.1. calm

4.1.4.4. "Out of Bounds Fours"

4.1.4.4.1. energetic

4.2. Health Risks

4.2.1. Trauma

4.2.1.1. facile complex motor abilities

4.2.1.2. difficulty containing child's willfulness

4.2.2. Communicable Diseases

4.3. Motor Development

4.3.1. Begin to master complex gross and fine motor tasks

4.3.1.1. Age 4: Skip, climb stairs, catch bouncing balls, and swing

4.3.1.2. Age 5: Ride a bicycle with training wheels and use toilet independently

4.3.1.3. Age 4-5: Print his or her first name

4.4. Language development

4.4.1. "Why" Questions

4.4.2. 5 year old sentences = 5 words

4.4.3. Rhythm and pace of speech improves rapidly

4.5. Cognitive Development

4.5.1. Play becomes imaginary and cooperative

4.5.1.1. Taking turns and learning to share

5. Middle Childhood

5.1. Physical Development

5.1.1. hormonal changes (as early as 7 years old)

5.1.1.1. adrenal steroids

5.1.1.2. estrogen and androgen

5.1.1.2.1. for girls: pubic and axillary hair growth, breast development and menses

5.1.1.2.2. for boys: pubic and axillary hair growth, testicular enlargement

5.1.2. gain 6 cm in height, 3kg in weight

5.1.2.1. bone and muscle growth

5.1.3. neurological changes

5.1.3.1. myelinization of the cerebral cortex

5.1.3.2. increase in dendrites and synaptic connections

5.2. Cognitive Development

5.2.1. conservation

5.2.1.1. object does not change just because the appearance changes

5.2.2. seriation

5.2.2.1. ability to understand quantifiable differences

5.2.3. transivity

5.2.3.1. able to think about relations of objects in serial order

5.3. Social Cognition

5.3.1. children compare their strengths with their peers strengths (I can run faster than Sue)

5.3.2. by 8-10 years old: children recognize psychological attributes

5.3.3. Late middle childhood: evaluate their traits

5.3.4. after they improve evaluations of themselves and others, they can view others' perspectives

5.4. Personal and Social Competence

5.4.1. master new physical, cognitive, and social skills

5.4.2. they find areas of success and accomplishment

5.4.3. social skills: personal space, hygiene, behavior

5.4.4. lack of social skill or learning and attention problems can lead to social rejection, and problems maintaining relationships

5.5. Moral Development

5.5.1. 6-7 years old: look at consequences

5.5.2. 9 years old: look at the rules

5.5.3. 10 years old: look at intent to understand their behaviors and others' behaviors

5.5.4. able to make distinctions between moral, social, and personal judgement

5.6. Gender-Identity and Sex Role Development

5.6.1. gender-related behavioral patterns

5.6.1.1. "boy" vs "girl" development

5.6.1.2. more modest about body

5.6.1.2.1. privacy

5.6.1.3. engage in same-sex play -- touching

5.7. Health Risks

5.7.1. chronic medical conditions

5.7.1.1. diabetes or asthma

5.7.1.2. be sure not to define self in terms of disorder

5.7.2. injuries

5.7.3. learning or attention disorder

5.7.3.1. anxieties

6. Adolescence 12-19 years

6.1. Physical Development

6.1.1. Puberty Development

6.2. Cognitive Development

6.2.1. Abstract thought, consider theoretical notions, devise hypotheses, examine cause-and-effect relationships, make judgments based on consequences

6.2.1.1. Only 35% of 16 to 17-year-olds exhibit these skills (formal operations)

6.2.2. Regression to a concrete stage of thinking

6.3. Moral Development

6.3.1. moral motivation positively associated with quality of parent-child relationship

6.3.1.1. social justice importance

6.3.2. judgments based on conventional moral reasoning

6.3.2.1. internalization of societal rules; what's best for community

6.4. Health Issues

6.4.1. rapid growth and maturation of puberty

6.4.1.1. structural ex. sciolosis

6.4.1.2. functional ex. shin splints

6.4.1.3. insufficient hormone release

6.4.2. Sexually Transmitted Diseases

6.4.3. Violence

6.4.4. Substance Abuse

6.4.5. Pregnancy

6.4.6. Mental Health Concerns

6.5. Emotional Development

6.5.1. emotional regulation

6.5.1.1. express/process feelings

6.5.1.2. brain maturation helps here

6.5.1.3. better resisting impulses

6.5.2. developmental trajectories

6.5.2.1. continuous

6.5.2.1.1. high self-esteem, stability

6.5.2.2. surgent

6.5.2.2.1. prone to depression, less social activity

6.5.2.3. tumultuous

6.5.2.3.1. anxious, peer-dependent, insecure, family isssues

6.5.3. normal to experience self-esteem disturbances, depression, shame and humiliation

6.6. Social Development

6.6.1. Peer friendships

6.6.2. Cases of social isolation

6.6.3. Experiment with more intimate relationships

6.6.4. Identity formation

6.6.5. Early adolescents: preoccupied with physical changes

6.6.6. Middle adolescents: preoccupied with their social role

6.6.7. Older adolescents: preoccupied with work and career

6.7. Gender Identity and Sexual Development

6.7.1. sexual functioning matures/significance increases

6.7.2. menarche

6.7.3. contraception

6.7.4. masturbation

6.7.5. SEX/STDs