Special Education Categories and Accommodations

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Special Education Categories and Accommodations by Mind Map: Special Education Categories and Accommodations

1. Autism

1.1. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)

1.1.1. A series of disorders defined by disturbances to normal functioning of:

1.1.1.1. SOCIAL INTERACTION (such as the inability to establish or maintain relationships with peers appropriate to the level of the child’s development)

1.1.1.2. COMMUNICATION (such as the absence of language or delays in its development)

1.1.1.3. BEHAVIOR (such as repetitive preoccupation with one or more areas of interest in a way that is abnormal in its intensity or focus).

1.1.2. Interventions/Modifications:

1.1.2.1. Students with ASD benefit from structure and routine. Visual aids explaining tasks and topics are also useful. ASD students frequently benefit from being partnered with academically-successful students, who can serve as models and unofficial tutors in class.

2. Deaf-blindness

2.1. Disability defined by:

2.1.1. concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

2.2. Interventions/Modifications:

2.2.1. Because deaf-blindness causes severe communication and other developmental and educational needs, it’s very important for children with deaf-blindness to receive special education and related services to address their individual needs.

3. Deafness

3.1. Disability defined by:

3.1.1. a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

3.2. Interventions/Modifications:

3.2.1. Hearing loss or deafness does not affect a person’s intellectual capacity or ability to learn. However, children who are hard of hearing or deaf generally require some form of special education services in order to receive an adequate education. Such services may include:

3.2.2. regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist;

3.2.3. amplification systems;

3.2.4. services of an interpreter for those students who use sign language;

3.2.5. favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading;

3.2.6. captioned films/videos;

3.2.7. assistance of a notetaker, who takes notes for the student with a hearing loss, so that the student can fully attend to instruction;

3.2.8. instruction for the teacher and peers in alternate communication methods, such as sign language; and

3.2.9. counseling.

4. Developmental Delay

4.1. A series of disabilities defined by:

4.1.1. a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development.

4.2. Interventions/Modifications:

4.2.1. Early intervention services are tailored to meet a child’s individual needs and, as such, are a very important resource to children experiencing developmental delays. Early intervention services can include:

4.2.2. Assistive technology (devices a child might need)

4.2.3. Audiology or hearing services

4.2.4. Speech and language services

4.2.5. Counseling and training for a family

4.2.6. Medical services

4.2.7. Nursing services

4.2.8. Nutrition services

4.2.9. Occupational therapy

4.2.10. Physical therapy

4.2.11. Psychological services

5. Emotional Disturbance

5.1. A series of disabilities defined by:

5.1.1. a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:

5.1.2. (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.

5.1.3. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.

5.1.4. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.

5.1.5. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.

5.1.6. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

5.1.7. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.

5.2. Interventions/Modifications:

5.2.1. Typically, educational programs for children with an emotional disturbance need to include attention to providing emotional and behavioral support as well as helping them to master academics, develop social skills, and increase self-awareness, self-control, and self-esteem. A large body of research exists regarding methods of providing students with positive behavioral support (PBS) in the school environment, so that problem behaviors are minimized and positive, appropriate behaviors are fostered.

6. Hearing Impairment

6.1. Disability defined by:

6.1.1. an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.”

7. Intellectual Disability

7.1. A series of disabilities defined by:

7.1.1. significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

7.2. Interventions/Modifications:

7.2.1. A child with an intellectual disability can do well in school but is likely to need the individualized help that’s available as special education and related services. The level of help and support that’s needed will depend upon the degree of intellectual disability involved.

7.2.2. General education. It’s important that students with intellectual disabilities be involved in, and make progress in, the general education curriculum. That’s the same curriculum that’s learned by those without disabilities. Be aware that IDEA does not permit a student to be removed from education in age-appropriate general education classrooms solely because he or she needs modifications to be made in the general education curriculum.

7.2.3. Supplementary aids and services. Given that intellectual disabilities affect learning, it’s often crucial to provide supports to students with ID in the classroom. This includes making accommodations appropriate to the needs of the student. It also includes providing what IDEA calls “supplementary aids and services.” Supplementary aids and services are supports that may include instruction, personnel, equipment, or other accommodations that enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate.

8. Multiple Disabilities

8.1. A series of disabilities defined by:

8.1.1. concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.

8.2. Interventions/Modifications:

8.2.1. Most children with multiple disabilities will need some level of help and support throughout their lives. How much support a child needs will depend on the disabilities involved. A child with mild multiple disabilities may only need intermittent support (meaning, support is needed every now and again, or for particular tasks). Children with multiple, more severe disabilities are likely to need ongoing support.

8.2.1.1. Assistive Technology

8.2.2. Support in major life activities | When considering what supports a child needs, it’s helpful to think about major life activities. “Major life activities” include activities such as:

8.2.3. caring for oneself;

8.2.4. performing manual tasks;

8.2.5. seeing, hearing, eating, and sleeping;

8.2.6. walking, standing, lifting, and bending;

8.2.7. speaking and communicating;

8.2.8. breathing;

8.2.9. learning;

8.2.10. reading;

8.2.11. concentrating and thinking; and

8.2.12. working.

9. Orthopedic Impairment

9.1. A series of disabilities defined by:

9.1.1. a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. A series of disabilities defined by:

10.1.1. limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that—

10.1.2. (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and

10.1.3. (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

10.2. Interventions/Modifications:

10.2.1. What was previously called “school health services” in IDEA was expanded in its 2004 reauthorization to distinguish between services that are provided by a qualified nurse and those that may be provided by other qualified individuals. States and local school districts often have guidelines that address school health services and school nurse services. These may include providing such health-related support as:

10.2.2. special feedings;

10.2.3. clean intermittent catheterization;

10.2.4. suctioning;

10.2.5. the management of a tracheostomy;

10.2.6. administering and/or dispensing medications;

10.2.7. planning for the safety of a child in school;

10.2.8. ensuring that care is given while at school and at school functions to prevent injury (e.g., changing a child’s position frequently to prevent pressure sores);

10.2.9. chronic disease management; and

10.2.10. conducting and/or promoting education and skills training for all (including the child) who serve as caregivers in the school setting.

11. Specific Learning Disability

11.1. A series of disabilities defined by:

11.1.1. a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.

11.2. Interventions/Modifications

11.2.1. Once a child is evaluated and found eligible for special education and related services, school staff and parents meet and develop what is known as an Individualized Education Program, or IEP. This document is very important in the educational life of a child with learning disabilities. It describes the child’s needs and the services that the public school system will provide free of charge to address those needs.

11.2.2. Assistive technology can also help many students work around their learning disabilities. Assistive technology can range from “low-tech” equipment such as tape recorders to “high-tech” tools such as reading machines (which read books aloud) and voice recognition systems (which allow the student to “write” by talking to the computer).

12. Speech or Language Impairment

12.1. A disability defined by:

12.1.1. a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

12.2. Interventions/Modifications

12.2.1. Most, if not all, students with a speech or language impairment will need speech-language pathology services.

12.2.2. Assistive technology (AT) can also be very helpful to students, especially those whose physical conditions make communication difficult. Each student’s IEP team will need to consider if the student would benefit from AT such as an electronic communication system or other device. AT is often the key that helps students engage in the give and take of shared thought, complete school work, and demonstrate their learning.

13. Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1. A disability defined by:

13.1.1. an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

13.2. Interventions/Modifications:

13.2.1. Find out as much as you can about the child’s injury and his or her present needs. Find out more about TBI through the resources and organizations listed below. These can help you identify specific techniques and strategies to support the student educationally.

13.2.2. Give the student more time to finish schoolwork and tests.

13.2.3. Give directions one step at a time. For tasks with many steps, it helps to give the student written directions.

13.2.4. Show the student how to perform new tasks. Give examples to go with new ideas and concepts.

13.2.5. Have consistent routines. This helps the student know what to expect. If the routine is going to change, let the student know ahead of time.

13.2.6. Check to make sure that the student has actually learned the new skill. Give the student lots of opportunities to practice the new skill.

13.2.7. Show the student how to use an assignment book and a daily schedule. This helps the student get organized.

13.2.8. Realize that the student may get tired quickly. Let the student rest as needed. Reduce distractions.

13.2.9. Keep in touch with the student’s parents. Share information about how the student is doing at home and at school.

13.2.10. Be flexible about expectations. Be patient. Maximize the student’s chances for success.

14. Visual Impairment, inc. Blindness

14.1. A series of disabilities defined by:

14.1.1. an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

14.2. Interventions/Modifications:

14.2.1. —Learn as much as you can about the student’s specific visual impairment. What aspects of vision are affected, and how does that affect the student’s ability to move about the classroom, see the board, or read a textbook? Parents (and the student!) can be an excellent source of this information.

14.2.2. — Learn about the many instructional and classroom accommodations that truly help students with visual impairments learn. We’ve listed a few in the resource section. Strongly support the student by making sure that needed accommodations are provided for classwork, homework, and testing. These will help the student learn successfully.

14.2.3. —If you are not part of the student’s IEP team, ask for a copy of his or her IEP. The student’s educational goals will be listed there, as well as the services and classroom accommodations he or she is to receive.

14.2.4. —Consult with others (e.g., special educators, the O&M specialist) who can help you identify strategies for teaching and supporting this student, ways to adapt the curriculum, and how to address the student’s IEP goals in your classroom.

14.2.5. —Find out if your state or school district has materials or resources available to help educators address the learning needs of children with visual impairments. It’s amazing how many do!

14.2.6. —Communicate with the student’s parents. Regularly share information about how the student is doing at school and at home.