Ch. 4- Language and Vocabulary Development

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Ch. 4- Language and Vocabulary Development by Mind Map: Ch. 4- Language and Vocabulary Development

1. Language Development and Reading

1.1. Reading-the use of one's language ability to decode and comprehend text

1.2. Our ability to understand what we are reading is based on our reconstruction of the meaning of the printed word

1.3. Early readers come from homes where rich language and a great deal of oral language are used

1.4. As Halliday (1975) states that language helps children learn how to determine meaning from the world around them

2. Language Learning

2.1. Children are active participants in their learning of language

2.2. Language acquisition is based somewhat of developmental maturity and children can play a role in this by constructing language

3. Theory and Research on How Children Acquire Language

3.1. The Behaviorist Theory- children imitate adult models and are motivated to continue using language because of positive reinforcement

3.2. The Nativist Theory- states that language develops innately, depends on maturation, and not affected by external factord

3.3. Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development- built on the principle that children develop through their activities

3.4. Vygotsky's Theory of Basic Learning- states that children learn higher mental functions by internalizing social relationships

3.5. The Constructivist Theory- describes children as the creators of language on the basis of an innate set of rules or underlying concepts

4. Halliday's Theory of Language Development

4.1. language development is a process by which children gradually "learn how to mean"

4.2. Functions of Language- instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, heuristic, imaginative, and informative

5. Brain Development and Language and Literacy Development from Birth to Age 3

5.1. Brain connections that are repeated and used become permanent; when brain connections are not used, they disintegrate and vanish which is called neural shearing

5.2. The connecting of the brain cells is called synaptogenesis or the rapid development of neural connections which happens at about 1 month of age

6. Stages in Language Development

6.1. From Birth to Year 1- first few months where oral language consists of a child's experimenting or playing with sounds, 8 to 10 months where babbling becomes more sophisticated, 8 to 12 months where children increase their comprehension of language dramatically and the understanding exceeds their ability to produce it

6.2. From Age 1 to 2- children begin to use telegraphic speech and 18 months most children can pronounce 4/5ths of the English phonemes and use 9 to 20 words

6.3. From Age 2 to 3- oral vocabulary grows from 300 to 1,00 words

6.4. From 3 to 4- at 4 children seem to have acquired all the elements of adult language

6.5. From 5 to 6- sound much like adults when they speak

6.6. From 7 to 8- developed a grammar that is almost equivalent to that of adults

7. Helping English Language Learners in Your Classroom

7.1. Include print in the classroom form the child's first language

7.2. suggest that ELL students share stories from their first language

7.3. make sure students can read and write with others who speak their language

7.4. allow children to talk

7.5. provide thematic instruction

7.6. write things based on the children's home life and experiences in school

8. Strategies for Language Development

8.1. Strategies for Language Development Birth to Age 2

8.1.1. Developing Language in the Child's first Year-by providing conversations and communication

8.1.2. Surround Infants with sensory objects

8.1.3. Language development at ages 1 to 2- people begin to expand and extend the child's language by helping increase the number of words the child is able to use in a sentence or by increasing the syntactic complexity of their own utterances

8.1.4. Scaffolding to help language develop

8.1.5. New experiences help develop language

8.1.6. Overgeneralizations and Language development- You do not have to correct children's overgeneralizations at this young age since they can learn and correct errors on their own later

8.1.7. Materials for language development at ages 1 and 2- more books, more hand-eye coordination objects, and toys with different textures

8.2. Strategies for Language Development in Early Childhood Classrooms

8.2.1. Center Materials for language development- appropriate materials to help generate language based on Science, Art, Music, Math, literacy, dramatic play, block area, workbench, and outdoor play

8.2.2. Develop Language with thematic units through discussion, word lists, pictures, sharing time, experiments, art, music, food preparation, dramatic play, outdoor play, morning message, class trips, reading/creating/telling stories, word walls, very own vocab words, and the summary of the day

8.2.3. Children's Literature and language development- use books that are interesting and help with vocab and reading and language skills

8.3. Expanding Vocabulary and Word Meaning in Second and Third Grades

8.3.1. Use semantic maps, context clues, vocabulary books, word parts, and the dictionary,

9. Formats for Promoting Language and Vocabulary Development in the Classroom

9.1. Informal Conversations with the teacher- use aesthetic talk, efferent talk, and dramatic activities

10. Assessment of Children's Language Development

10.1. Use checklists, anecdotal records, audio and video taping, and interviews

10.2. Use standardized language assessment like the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, the Teacher Rating of Oral Language and Literacy, and the Woodcock-Johnson III NU Tests of Achievement. These are used to assess the child's language from 2 to 18 years of age