Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

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Individuals with Disabilities Education Act by Mind Map: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act

1. Emotional Disturbance

1.1. exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance

1.1.1. positive behavioral support

1.1.1.1. function-based approach to eliminate challenging behaviors and replace them with prosocial skills

1.1.1.2. not focus exclusively on the student, but also includes changing environmental variables such as the physical setting, task demands, curriculum, instructional pace and individualized reinforcement

1.1.1.3. always involves data-based decision making using functional behavioral assessment and ongoing monitoring of intervention impact

1.1.1.4. High fidelity of implementation is required to maximize outcomes; therefore, interventions should be applied by educators in the school environment

1.2. (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors

1.3. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers

1.4. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances

1.5. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression

1.6. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.

1.7. includes schizophrenia but does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.

1.8. CASE STUDY

2. Autism

2.1. Developmental Disability

2.1.1. Special education programs for students with ASDs

2.1.1.1. structured classroom environment

2.1.1.2. information is presented visually as well as verbally

2.1.1.3. consistency and continuity

2.1.1.4. interaction with nondisabled peers

2.1.2. Tips for Teachers

2.1.2.1. Make sure directions are given step-by- step

2.2. verbal and nonverbal communication

2.3. social interaction

2.4. repetitive activities and stereotyped movements

2.5. resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines,

2.6. unusual responses to sensory experiences

2.7. CASE STUDY

3. Deafness

3.1. hearing impairment

3.1.1. special education services

3.1.1.1. regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist

3.1.1.2. amplification systems

3.1.1.3. services of an interpreter for those students who use sign language

3.1.1.4. favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading

3.1.1.5. captioned films/videos

3.1.1.6. assistance of a notetaker, who takes notes for the student with a hearing loss, so that the student can fully attend to instruction

3.1.1.7. instruction for the teacher and peers in alternate communication methods, such as sign language; and counseling

3.2. so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification

4. Developmental Delay

4.1. birth to age three (under IDEA Part C) and children from ages three through nine (under IDEA Part B)

4.1.1. early intervention services

4.1.1.1. Assistive technology (devices a child might need)

4.1.1.2. Audiology or hearing services

4.1.1.3. Speech and language services

4.1.1.4. Counseling and training for a family

4.1.1.5. Medical services

4.1.1.6. Nursing services

4.1.1.7. Nutrition services

4.1.1.8. Occupational therapy

4.1.1.9. Physical therapy

4.1.1.10. Psychological services

4.2. delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development

5. Hearing Impairment

5.1. impairment in hearing

5.1.1. special education services

5.1.1.1. regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist

5.1.1.2. amplification systems

5.1.1.3. services of an interpreter for those students who use sign language

5.1.1.4. favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading

5.1.1.5. captioned films/videos

5.1.1.6. assistance of a notetaker, who takes notes for the student with a hearing loss, so that the student can fully attend to instruction

5.1.1.7. instruction for the teacher and peers in alternate communication methods, such as sign language; and counseling

5.2. whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.”

6. Intellectual Disability

6.1. significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning

6.1.1. Educational Considerations

6.1.1.1. It’s important that students with intellectual disabilities be involved in, and make progress in, the general education curriculum

6.1.1.2. Supplementary aids and services are supports that may include instruction, personnel, equipment, or other accommodations that enable children with disabilities to be educated with nondisabled children to the maximum extent appropriate.

6.1.1.3. Teachers and parents can help a child work on adaptive skills, which are skills needed to live, work, and play in the community at both school and home

6.1.1.4. It’s extremely important for families and schools to begin planning early for the student’s transition into the world of adulthood

6.2. existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period

7. Multiple Disabilities

7.1. concomitant [simultaneous] impairments

7.1.1. Tips for Teachers

7.1.1.1. Know the needs, play to the strengths.

7.1.1.2. Be familiar with the student’s IEP.

7.1.1.3. Make modifications

7.1.1.4. Let the IEP team know what program supports or modifications you need

7.1.1.5. Allow partial participation, as necessary

7.1.1.6. Be concrete; give lots of hands-on opportunities for learning and practice. Give feedback immediately. Repeat the learning task in different settings.

7.1.1.7. Work with the related services personnel, as appropriate

7.1.1.8. Address behavior issues

7.1.1.9. Encourage the student’s independence

7.1.1.10. When the time comes, support transition planning

7.1.1.11. Consider assistive technology (AT). AT is appropriate, even essential, for many students with multiple disabilities. Without AT, there may be many tasks they simply cannot perform or will have difficulty performing. Computers, augmentative/alternative communication systems, and communication boards are just some examples of helpful AT

7.2. the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments

8. Orthopedic Impairment…

8.1. severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance

8.2. impairments caused by a congenital anomaly

8.3. impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis)

8.4. impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures)

9. Other Health Impairment

9.1. limited alertness with respect to the educational environment

9.1.1. health-related support

9.1.1.1. special feedings;

9.1.1.2. clean intermittent catheterization;

9.1.1.3. suctioning;

9.1.1.4. the management of a tracheostomy;

9.1.1.5. administering and/or dispensing medications;

9.1.1.6. planning for the safety of a child in school;

9.1.1.7. ensuring that care is given while at school and at school functions to prevent injury (e.g., changing a child’s position frequently to prevent pressure sores);

9.1.1.8. chronic disease management; and

9.1.1.9. conducting and/or promoting education and skills training for all (including the child) who serve as caregivers in the school setting.

9.2. having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli

9.3. due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome

10. Specific Learning Disability

10.1. a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language

10.1.1. Tips and Resources for Teachers

10.1.1.1. Learn as much as you can about the different types of LD. The resources and organizations listed below can help you identify specific techniques and strategies to support the student educationally.

10.1.1.2. Seize the opportunity to make an enormous difference in this student’s life! Find out and emphasize what the student’s strengths and interests are. Give the student positive feedback and lots of opportunities for practice.

10.1.1.3. Provide instruction and accommodations to address the student’s special needs. Examples:

10.1.1.3.1. breaking tasks into smaller steps, and giving directions verbally and in writing;

10.1.1.3.2. giving the student more time to finish schoolwork or take tests;

10.1.1.3.3. letting the student with reading problems use instructional materials that are accessible to those with print disabilities;

10.1.1.3.4. letting the student with listening difficulties borrow notes from a classmate or use a tape recorder; and

10.1.1.3.5. letting the student with writing difficulties use a computer with specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks, or recognizes speech.

10.1.1.4. Learn about the different testing modifications that can really help a student with LD show what he or she has learned.

10.1.1.5. Teach organizational skills, study skills, and learning strategies. These help all students but are particularly helpful to those with LD.

10.1.1.6. Work with the student’s parents to create an IEP tailored to meet the student’s needs.

10.1.1.7. Establish a positive working relationship with the student’s parents. Through regular communication, exchange information about the student’s progress at school.

10.2. may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations

10.3. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia

10.4. CASE STUDY

11. Speech or Language Impairment

11.1. a communication disorder

11.1.1. Educational Considerations

11.1.1.1. individual therapy for the child;

11.1.1.2. consult with the child’s teacher about the most effective ways to facilitate the child’s communication in the class setting; and

11.1.1.3. work closely with the family to develop goals and techniques for effective therapy in class and at home.

11.1.1.4. Assistive technology (AT) can also be very helpful to students, especially those whose physical conditions make communication difficult. Each student’s IEP team will need to consider if the student would benefit from AT such as an electronic communication system or other device. AT is often the key that helps students engage in the give and take of shared thought, complete school work, and demonstrate their learning.

11.2. stuttering

11.3. impaired articulation

11.4. a language impairment

11.5. a voice impairment

12. Traumatic Brain Injury

12.1. acquired injury to the brain

12.1.1. Tips for Teachers

12.1.1.1. Find out as much as you can about the child’s injury and his or her present needs. Find out more about TBI through the resources and organizations listed below. These can help you identify specific techniques and strategies to support the student educationally.

12.1.1.2. Give the student more time to finish schoolwork and tests.

12.1.1.3. Give directions one step at a time. For tasks with many steps, it helps to give the student written directions.

12.1.1.4. Show the student how to perform new tasks. Give examples to go with new ideas and concepts.

12.1.1.5. Have consistent routines. This helps the student know what to expect. If the routine is going to change, let the student know ahead of time.

12.1.1.6. Check to make sure that the student has actually learned the new skill. Give the student lots of opportunities to practice the new skill.

12.1.1.7. Show the student how to use an assignment book and a daily schedule. This helps the student get organized.

12.1.1.8. Realize that the student may get tired quickly. Let the student rest as needed. Reduce distractions.

12.1.1.9. Keep in touch with the student’s parents. Share information about how the student is doing at home and at school.

12.1.1.10. Be flexible about expectations. Be patient. Maximize the student’s chances for success.

12.2. caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both

12.3. applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas

12.3.1. cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech

13. Visual Impairment Including Blindness

13.1. impairment in vision

13.1.1. Educational Considerations

13.1.1.1. move about safely and independently, which is known as orientation and mobility (O&M);

13.1.1.2. use assistive technologies designed for children with visual impairments;

13.1.1.3. use what residual vision they have effectively and efficiently; and

13.1.1.4. read and write in Braille, if determined appropriate by the IEP team of the child after a thorough evaluation. (11)

13.2. even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance

14. Deaf-Blindness

14.1. concomitant [simultaneous] hearing and visual impairments

14.1.1. Important Practices in Effective Communication

14.1.1.1. facilitate and promote a child’s individualized mode of communication

14.1.1.2. increase the number of people who can effectively communicate with the child

14.1.1.3. take steps to encourage others to respect our children and feel more comfortable interacting with them

14.2. hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs

14.3. cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.