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Scepticism by Mind Map: Scepticism

1. Sceptics/Pyrrhonsts

1.1. Hold no doctrine and suspend judgement on everything. The inquiry never ends as there can be no knowledge and no justification of beliefs

1.2. Socratic method and aporia often strikes as a sceptical note

1.3. As a result of suspending judgement tranquillity and peace of mind can be attained also resulting in equanimity.

1.4. Philosophy is a life enhancing activity capable of arriving at wisdom. Human nature is illuminated by the study of Philosophy.

1.5. Withholding judgement was adopted to avoid rash error.

2. Sextus Empiricus

2.1. Sextus is a compiler who writes clearly and concentrates on argument rather than anecdotes

2.2. Sextus wanted to suspend judgement on theoretical arcana or 'the secret things' rather than everyday belief

3. Sceptical strands in later Western though

3.1. Cicero - scepticism tells against itself. May require more implicit knowledge of that world that the sceptic would allow

3.2. Descartes - sought to draw certainties from the application of scepticism

3.3. Montaigne - Constructive scepticism which allows for a tolerance of diverse views

4. Anti-sceptical strands in later Western thought

4.1. Augustine - Argues against Decartes that his awareness of himself doubting is something which he can be sure of

4.2. Hume - his empiricism was always open to knowledge. Doubts about causes are an invitation to collect stronger evidence

5. Recent Scepticism

5.1. Positivism - Empirical, logical factives can only be held as meaningful

5.2. Deconstructionism - Derrida. It is already at work in the work. Not to naturalise that which is not natural. To not assume that what is conditioned by society, institutions, history is natural

5.3. Post modernism - modern world has reached limits. Move on intellectually and culturally. Critical philosophy. Takes pathologies of modern world as data (poverty, racial, hunger, environmental degradation). Symptoms of underlying instability

5.4. Contextualism, foundationalism, coherentism

5.5. Truth tracking (Nozick) includes an appropriate responsiveness to sceptical questions