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Technical Communication by Mind Map: Technical
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Technical Communication

Work with a translator

Ch 2 Rhetoric and Technical Communication

Workplace Problems

Percieved Problems

Real Problems, Deals with the PSA. Plan, Research, Draft, Review and Distribute, New node

New node

Rhetorical Problems

Rhetorical Problems are often work related issues, Exigency, An event or situation that needs to be solved, often involving documents to help solve the issue, Workplace Writer, Someone to write a document that identifies and offers a solution to fix the issue, and uses the proper type of document and context to fix the issue., They Strive for correctness, experience, expertise, and goodwill, Audience, Being able to properly read the document, and fix the issue at hand

Resolving Workplace Problems

Rhetorical Writing

Context Writing

Writing for an Audience

Ch 3 TC and Electronic Technologies


Creating Documents using Tech HTW entry, use of Pictures and animation PG 395, Word Processing, Ability to edit, revise, different templates, tables, charts, and its easier to share documents over the internet, etc, Presenting Software, PowerPoint ETC, Graphics and Imaging Software, Photoshop, Web-Authored Software, Web Design (HTML, XML), Desktop Publishing Software, Adobe InDesign, Help and E-Learning Software, "Documentation Professionals" or online help system creators, Guides users through their issues using step by step information, Single Source Programs, Using the same or similar style manual to write for a different product or manual. helps eliminate errors.

Communicating and Collaborating


The World Wide Web, HTML, server based, collection of sites on the internet, Access to info, Storage of info on servers/sites, Multimedia use, visuals, Transmission of data, easier access, Collaboration over distances

Email, HTW Pg 162, Considered extremely important and quick, Cheap price, Convenient, Organization is simple

Ethics, Netiquette, Making sure that your using clean and clear language, don't butt into others discussions, respectful email address name, bandwith is kept lowish, organize your emails, and ensure that your not posting anything discriminate.

Electronic Messaging, IM's, chat rooms

Video Conferencing

Groupware, WebCT, Blackboard etc

The Future of Workplace Writing and Computer Technology

Wireless Technology (Wi-Fi)

Faster Bandwith

Integration and Portability


Transnationalism HTW Pg 228, Global Communication

Ch 4 Ethics and the Workplace Writer

What is Ethics?

Metaethics, Universal set of ethics? Religious? Emotional reasons?

Normatic ethics, Right and wrong, behavior

Applied ethics, Real world ramifications to decisions

Ethics and the Workplace Writer

think more clearly and more sensitively

Allows us to articulate our beliefs and values

Studying ethics allows for advancement in our ethical thinking

Ethical Guidelines and Law infringement

Liability Laws, Who is responsible for defective products, injury etc

Enviromenal Laws, Hiding environmental info that is possibly dangerous to the environment or habitat.

Copyright Laws

Patent Laws

Trademark and Service Mark Laws

Contract Laws

Ethical Guidelines

Honesty, Don't present false information, especially if its damaging to others, environment, health

Respect Confidentiality

Ethics in Context

Situation and Perspective, Purpose? Audience and the affect it will have? Authority? ramifications? Limits to what is conveyed? environmental affect? response? these questions need to be addressed while typing up a document on a situation.

Circulation, Circulation of potentially unethical documents (the iPhone hack, FEMA)

Revising and Editing, Make sure others know your intentions while revising others work, whether the infor is made obscure or ambiguous

Code of Ethics

Company policies to help employees through difficult situations in the workplace

Ethics and Technology

4 principle factors, behavior online, Laws, Govt imposed, Social Norms, "normalcy", The marketplace- Ebay, Amazon, Architecture- how we get places online

Email, its never private, can be accessed by more than just the intended target

Websites, Where you get your info, whether its good, or if its false

Visual, Doctored pictures, video, polls

Environmental ethics, do the actions we take affect the world around us?, How does our actions affect the length and quality of others' lives?, possible compromises?, do other parts of the environments have rights also?

Avoiding unethical Writing, avoid Deceptive or evasive language, Dont Obscure or misprepresent the issue, or facts, Abstract language, Jargon, Emphasis or suppression of Information, Visual Rhetoric, Plagiarism, Innacurate Information

Business Ethics

Teaching ethics


Ch 5 Technical Communication in a Transnational World

Learning about Differences

Language, Target Language, Work with translators, language textbooks, and audio tools (Rosetta Stone for example), National Languages, translating a document for legal reasons, time saving, International English, Not precise... People have different dialects and uses for English. use regional as primary language, Text Directionality, Not always left to right, then down. Knowing how the target audience reads is key, Writing Style, Understanding other countries writing styles are important... work with translators to help with accuracy and flow.

Technology, Do other countries have same technology access as you? Use common tech ground for support, Machine translation, translates into other languages, but is limited by design

Education, Literacy, Common Body of Knowledge, Learning Style

Politics, trade Issues, Legal Issues, Political traditions and symbols, forms of Govt, voting rights, significant dates (4th of July for ex), flags, natl docs, and symbols

Economy, Currency Values and exchange rates, how much people are willing to spend on items, and how they view spending

Society, Age, Business Etiquette, Family and social interaction

Religion, Can effect govt and law, whether to use pictures of their religion, or food intake is restrictive

Avoiding Stereotypes

Avoid Assumptions

Ask Questions. Figure out what is acceptable in anothers culture, before meeting with a client

Enhancing translation

Terminology, Specialized terms don't always transfer

Clarity, avoid using Idioms, accronyms, ambiguous antecendents, synonyms, etc

Cultural and Rhetorical Differences, Avoid Jokes and idiomatic expressions- might not understand or viewed as inappropriate HTW 248

Design, Organizing the documents, clearly organized. Other languages require 30% more room to say the same thing, so design is key

Accomodating Transnational Audiences

Localization, Adapting a product for a specific local audience, General localization, radical localization, Focuses on substantive cultural differences, Benefits, Improves local sales, overcomes cultural differences, Overcoming inherent differences, IE adapting the Big Mac to Vegetarians, Reaching the world markets and entering global niche markets

internationalization, Developing software that can be adapted to transnational audiences without changing the core software design, Localizing document for context

Globalization, Creating a document that is understood or used by many across the globe. Using visual documentation for "everyone" to understand

Verbal Communication, Talking is still needed to communicate with natives, Speak slowly and enunciate, Face to Face conversations... body language key, Avoid Noisy locations, Use as simple terms as possible

Transnational Ethics, Universal Ethics?, How do other countries address ethical issues?, Does the target cultures business people treat foriegn business people differently?, Does target country have different ethical traditions?, Do religion affect their ethical approach?, Do business practices affect their ethical understanding?, Industry specific ethics?

Guidelines for Writing for Transnational Audiences

Write Clearly, Punctuation, Avoid Pronouns HTW 405, Consistent terminology, Avoid Comparitives, Avoid idiomatic language, Definitive language

Localize your writing, Alphabetic differences, Local number system HTW 352, Time differences, avoid holiday references, Avoid Cultural Differences, Avoid Humor

Account for Visual and Auditory perceptions, Consider Visual Interpretations, Avoid images of people and hand gestures, Reevaluate design elements and principles, Account for differences in sound interpretation

Ch 7 Organizing and Drafting Documents

Predrafting Strategies PSA

Confirm your purpose, hope to accomplish?, What should readers do after reading?, What info should be conveyed?

Analyze your audience, Expertise?, Education?, Cultural Differences?, Attitude, expectations, Context

Gather info, PSA approach

Develop ideas on the info, Collaboration and Discussion, Listing, Freewriting, Clustering

Organize info, Purpose, Audience, Logic, Ethics, sequential, chronological, Order of importance, General/specific, General info, to more specific, Division, dividing into smaller parts to work through, Classification, Cause and effect, Studies on causes, reports detailing impacts, memos on something that led to policy changes, a set of instructions explaining how something will happen if misused, Compare/contrast, attempt to determine which road to take, comparison of the whole, or part by part consideration, Spatial, helpful for physical space or objects, schematics projections or other visual representations, Outline important ideas, how the info flows logically, divide the label parts of the document, how you develo transitions between parts of the document

Writing the Draft, parts of a document


Cover image



Table of contents HTW 519

List of figures

exective summary/abstract

materials, parts, or tools lists

Inside and return lists


alerts and warnings


Procedures, Body section



Conclusions HTW 93, end matter

addl info

troubleshooting suggestions

Addl warnings or alerts



appendixes HTW 34


contact info

follow up info

Nonlinear process, Writing the Draft

Front matter, body, and end matter

Statement of purpose

info that supports purpose of the document

Strong conclusions and recommendations

Writing the Draft, drafting the body

Coverage and length

Organization and access

Writing the Draft, drafting the conclusion

summary of info

analytic predictions based on info

Recommendations on how the reader should act

judgement about the info

drafting the intro

Purpose/objective, Convince the audience, provide direction, offer info, initiate action

scope, what is to be covered in the document

Statement of the problem

relevant background info

Key terms

Overview of organization


Electronic templates and Wizards

Templates for memos, resumes etc

Wizards help the user through a series of dialog boxes