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1. d) Weakness of League of Nations - cherrie

1.1. Mukden incident and invasion of Manchuria

1.1.1. Manchuria was both economically and strategically important to Japan

1.1.2. Japan can defend its interests in Korea and allowed Japan to be placed in a strong position for future expansion into China due to Manchuria's location

1.1.3. 18/09/1931 - Mukden incident - bomb exploded near Japanese railway so the Japanese blamed chinese nationalists and demanded that action should be taken to protect Japanese interests in Manchuria.

1.1.4. Mukden incident = opportunity for a military takeover of Manchuria

1.1.5. China was too preoccupied w its own civil war and failed to resist against the Japanese, thus, Manchuria is now Manchukuo.

1.1.6. League of Nations stepped in and tried to enforce investigations and all, but Japan left the League of Nations thus the LON were unable to take action against Japan.

1.2. Second Sino-Japanese War;

1.2.1. 1932 - fighting between Japanese and Chinese allowed Japan to increase their control over Manchuria.

1.2.2. Second Sino-Jap war broke out in 1937 - Japanese troops tried to force their way into Wanping w the reason of searching for their lost soldier( whom they suspected was captured by the chinese) but they failed

1.2.3. Both sides increased their military strengths in that area and there were attempts made to resolve the issue but there was a heightened tension between Japan and China.

1.2.4. Western powers were reluctant to help China as they were preoccupied w europe as Hitler tried to impose his own expansionist policy.

1.2.5. Western powers only helped CHina when the extent of Japanese violence in Nanking massacre was made known internationally.

2. e) Japan's response to world developments in the 1930s - siayi

2.1. American foreign policy changes

2.1.1. President Franklin D. spoke for the need for aggressor nations to be 'quarantined' and used Japan's aggression to justify military aid to China

2.1.2. In 1939, Roosevelt cancelled the 1911 commercial treaty with Japan, placing restrictions on Japanese trade with USA.

2.1.3. Roosevelt went further and imposed a trade embargo of the export of steel, scrap iron and fuel to Japan when Japan occupied Vietnam in 1940. As these resources were essential to support Japan's war efforts in China in the Second Sino Japanese War, making the control of oil-rich countries more attractive. Indirectly made USA one of Japan's enemies.

2.2. War in Europe

2.2.1. contributed towards Japanese decision to wage war in Asia Pacific

2.2.2. outbreak of war meant that British and France defences in Asia Pacific were crucially weakened.

2.2.3. As the European powers were preoccupied by the war in Europe, Southeast Asia was left defenceless, creating a opportunity for Japan to take the place of the declining powers in the region. French Indochina and British colonies of Malaysia and Singapore became easy targets for Japanese invasion.

2.3. Attack on Pearl Harbour

2.3.1. Japan's first concrete step towards waging war in Asia Pacific.

2.3.2. Roosevelt had hoped Japan's reliance on American oil would force it to accept American demands to end war in China and limit its expansion in the region

2.3.3. The emperor then approved the plans from the newly appointed Prime Minister, Hideki Tojo, who was the General and War Minister, for war against the USA, Britain and the Netherlands in Southeast Asia. target of the 'knockout' blow was the American Pacific Fleet, which was moved to Pearl Harbour in Hawaii by Roosevelt as a deterrent to Japanese agression. American Pacific Fleet had necessary sea and air power to control the Asia-Pacific region and could defend Southeast Asia and did not think that a Japanese attack could reach that far east to Hawaii without being detected. at 7.55am on December 1941, Japanese planes struck Pearl Harbour, sinking five of the eight battleships at anchor and bombing its aircraft fields. Roosevelt declared war on Japan in his Pearl Harbour Address the next day

2.3.4. Japan faced a choice of either to give in by withdrawing from China, or to retaliate by attacking USA. Japanese politicians could not afford to back down at this stage Emperor feared the anger and power of military factions and did not want to embarrass himself or endanger Japanese imperial interests in China.

2.3.5. Japanese navy and army chiefs advised the emperor that their stockpiled oil reserves would run out in 2 years. Also told the prime minister and emperor that war with USA could not be avoided. They hoped that a quick 'knockout' blow against USA and rapid expansion southwards would convince the Americans to negotiate a peace settlement.

3. a) Japan's ambition to establish itself in Asia and Europe - chelsea


3.1.1. rise of japan was an immmediate threat to Russia interests in the Far East

3.1.2. 19th century, sea travel was the most viable route between Russia and China Trans-Siberian railway between Russia And China had not been constructed Russian Empire established sphere of influence in Manchuria and secured permanent ice-free port

3.1.3. Japan wanted to reach diplomatic agreement Japan offered to accept Russian Influence in Manchuria if Russia accepted Japanese influence in Korea Russia wanted to est. permanent military and naval base in Manchuria - seen as security threat to Japan , interests and influences to Korea Russia not interested to compromise : Did not believe in negotiating with Japan Japan declared war on Russia and defeated them 1904-1905


3.2.1. 1902, Britain signed alliance with Japan, Anglo-Japanese Alliance mutual recognition of Brit. and Jap. interests in Asia 1905, renewed Brit, recognized Japan's right to defend Korea ; Japan recognized Brit.'s right to defend India


3.3.1. First Sino-Japanese War

3.3.2. Twenty-One Demands western powers became very interested in China because of its large territory, population and potential for economic actvity Japan established foothold in Manchuria after the Russo-Japanese war gained control of Korea and Taiwan after first Sino-Japanese war Japan joined WWI on the side of the Allies and occupied Qingdao ( German-controlled ) delivered twenty-one demands as an ultimatum to China, 1915


3.4.1. American racism against the Japanese

3.4.2. Paris Peace Conference

3.4.3. Washington Naval Conference, 1921

4. b) Crisis in Japan -vivi

4.1. Economic crisis

4.1.1. rapid population increase, causing shortage of land for farming (not available) Farmers no land to grow crops, unable to earn decent profit Traditional methods of farming were extremely labour-intensive and slow

4.1.2. Japanese discontented Lost faith in government

4.1.3. Great depression in 1929 affected economy Opposition in free trade, increasing restrictions, taxation on Japanese exports USA and Britain practice protectionism (prioritising and advataging a country's domestic industries heavily taxing imported goods provide subsidies to local industries demand for Japanese exports (silk) fell drastically

4.2. Overpopulation

4.2.1. popultion grew larger demand for housing, goods, products increased fed Japan's expansionist ambitions occupations of more territories meant acess to more resources and space for relocating citizens many Japanese resettled to Manchuria political climate unstable as military wanted more power rise of Japanese militarism

4.3. Growth of military influence in Japanese politics

4.3.1. May 1932 - PM Tsuyoshi Inukai was assasinated, parliamentary rule ended

4.3.2. Martial Law (society under military law, harsher punishments than civil law) declared 15 member cabinet wih 10 military figures ad 5 political members PM Makoto Saito

4.3.3. granted concessions to military to prevent further political violence

5. c) Japanese expansionist foreign policy - sandra

5.1. Needed to acquire resources

5.1.1. Had limited resources and had to rely on trade with other countries in order to import essential resources such as oil

5.1.2. After Great Depression, it made it even more difficult for Japan to obtain the raw materials it needed from markets it did not directly control

5.1.3. Thus developed an expansionist foreign policy of taking control of territories near Japan Necessary in order to support their supply of raw materials and resources Control of Taiwan allowed the Japanese access to and important source of sugar Korea was annexed to defend the Japanese isles and provide a source of cotton and wool Manchuria was occupied in turn to defend Korea, as well as to provide a source of minerals and wheat. It also provided Japan with land for the growing population

5.1.4. Rise of militarism in Japanese political leadership also steered Japanese foreign policy towards expansionism, fuelled by Japan's desire for equality and recognition amongst the world powers Involvement in conflicts with the major world powers in the early 1900s and its successes brought about an increase in confidence in the military. Control of territories also allowed Japan to build its own empire

5.2. Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

5.2.1. The Japanese would dominate the whole of East Asia and Southeast Asia. Expel the European colonial powers from these regions and to replace them with satellite states loyal to Japan Would be defended by the Japanese military and governed through local elites aided by Japanese advisors

5.2.2. The Japanese sought to expand into Southeast Asia due to the availability of important raw materials there Japan was especially interested in rubber and oil from Malaya and Indonesia These materials were crucial to its military machine and were lacking in Korea, Taiwan and Manchuria

5.2.3. Many Southeast Asians were discontented under colonial rule and wanted independence from European rule. The Japanese promised to 'liberate' Southeast Asia from European colonial rule with popular slogans such as 'Asia for Asians'. The Southeast Asians perceived the proposed 'co-prosperity sphere' with optimism, in the hope of achieving independence However, the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere was really a plan to extend the Japanese Empire into Southeast Asia for economic gains and to further support Japan's expansionist efforts