Local Culture, Popular Culture, and Cultural Landscapes

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Local Culture, Popular Culture, and Cultural Landscapes by Mind Map: Local Culture, Popular Culture, and Cultural Landscapes

1. Field Note: Preserving Culture

1.1. Tata cooperation's logo are everywhere in Hyderabad, India

1.1.1. it's owned by a Parsi family

1.2. Parsi is a religion and ethnic group

1.2.1. They were refugees rom Iran

1.2.2. Over 3/4 of India's population is Hindu; not many Parsis

1.3. Parsi's hold large shares in in India's economy

1.3.1. Theory 1: Strong relations between Parsi and British

1.3.2. Theory 2: small Parsi communities grew financially from the cotton industry

1.4. It's difficult to maintain Parsi culture traits and practices in a globalizing world

1.4.1. Only children of 2 Parsi parents can be members

1.4.2. Parsi women who marry "outsiders" and their children are excluded from the communities

1.4.2.1. #1- women have higher literacy rates

1.4.2.2. #2- more job oppertunities

1.4.2.3. #3- Delaying childbirth/ not having children

1.4.2.4. #4- lower fertility rates

1.4.2.5. #5- migration out of India

1.4.3. Priest claims that the lack of intermarriage kept their culture/ religion

1.4.3.1. Parsi population declined because they don't count the women

1.4.4. Local culture is pressured by larger cultures

2. What are local and popular cultures?

2.1. Culture is Complex

2.1.1. It's how the people define themselves that counts!

2.2. Popular Culture

2.2.1. Large, urban

2.2.2. Paths of diffusion:

2.2.2.1. #1 transport

2.2.2.2. #2 marketing

2.2.2.3. #3 communication networks

2.2.2.3.1. Ex: Kate Middleton's wedding dress

2.2.3. Ex. of hierarchical diffusion through places

2.2.3.1. runway-fashion houses (the hearth)- to department stores

2.2.4. Ex of " " through people

2.2.4.1. designer (hearth)- models- celebrities- editors- writers- subscribers

2.3. Local Culture

2.3.1. Small, rural

2.3.2. Constantly relocating/refining themselves

2.3.2.1. #1 interactions with other cultures

2.3.2.2. #2 diffusion of cultural practices

2.4. Material Culture reflects the values and beliefs of nonmaterial cultures

3. How are local cultures sustained?

3.1. Governments created policies of assimilation the indigenous people

3.1.1. Govs. later apologized for grief, suffering, and loss

3.1.2. Local cultures are re-established and sustained by customs

3.1.2.1. They work towards keeping other cultures out and their culture in

3.1.2.2. Ex: Native Americans teach languages, revive old religions, and eating foods and herbs of ancestors

3.1.3. Local cultures try to avoid cultural appropriation

3.1.3.1. other cultures "copy" (appropri.) to accumulate wealth or prestie

3.1.3.2. Places become increasingly important

3.2. Rural Local Cultures

3.2.1. isolation makes maintaining a culture easier

3.2.1.1. Maleah American Indians

3.2.1.1.1. Whale hunting reinstated to solidify local culture

3.2.1.2. Little Sweden USA

3.2.1.2.1. City in Kansas; has no Swedish heritage, but celebrates the culture

3.2.1.3. Ex: Anabaptists (Amish, Mennonites...)

3.2.1.3.1. Hutterites

3.3. Urban Local Cultures

3.3.1. exists in ethnic neighborhoods

3.3.1.1. Ex: Boston

3.3.1.2. Challenge: migration into their neighborhood

3.4. Local Cultures and Cultural Appropriation

3.4.1. Local cultures try to keep their customs to theirselves

3.4.2. commodification affects local culture

3.4.2.1. Cultures as a whole

3.4.2.1.1. Ex #1: tourist buses for observing Amish communities

3.4.2.1.2. Ex #2: climbing the Himalayas with traditional guides for a spiritual journey

3.4.2.2. material culture

3.4.2.3. nonmaterial

3.4.2.4. Tourist/ buyers want "authenticity"

3.4.2.4.1. A complex culture, not stereotypes

3.5. Authenticity of Places

3.5.1. Authentic tourist places benefit from the mystique of local cultures

3.5.1.1. Ex: Africa theme park

3.5.2. Search for authentic places

3.5.2.1. identifying people who are untouched by change

3.5.2.2. perpetuates myths about cultures

3.5.3. Guinness and the Irish Pub Company

3.5.3.1. sales dropped in Ireland, they placed prototypes globally

4. How is popular culture diffused?

4.1. Hearths of Popular Culture

4.1.1. Diffuse heirarchically

4.1.2. Establishing the Hearth

4.1.2.1. hearth begins with contagious diffusion

4.1.2.2. Ex: bands like Dave Mathews

4.1.3. Manufacturing the Hearth

4.1.3.1. record producers determine wether college band makes it

4.1.3.1.1. Ex: MTV

4.1.3.2. Pop. Culture "blanket" theory

4.1.3.2.1. instead we make pop culture our own- reterritorialization

4.2. The time of diffusion keeps shrinking

4.2.1. Ex: Facebook

4.2.1.1. instant communication enables news to travel quickly

4.2.1.2. China and N Korea banned it

4.2.1.2.1. Replaced it with Renren

4.2.2. transportation and communication changed distance decay map

4.2.2.1. replaced it with a time-space compression map which shows how interconnected 2 places are

4.2.2.1.1. technology links places together

4.3. Replacing Old Hearths with New: Beating Out the Big Three in Popular Sports

4.3.1. Big 3 sports: basketball, football, and baseball

4.3.1.1. still draw money

4.3.1.2. being replaced by extreme sports

4.3.2. new sports catch eyes of young athletes

4.3.3. Marketing uses sports to sell their products

4.4. Stemming the Tide of Popular Culture-Losing the Local?

4.4.1. character and culture of people, places, and landscapes

4.4.1.1. shaped by what people chose to adopt from pop culture, how they reterritorialize it, and what they reject

4.4.2. concerns over the loss of local distinctiveness is found everywhere

4.4.3. Europe, Us Japan, South Korea's influence in Pop culture

4.4.3.1. N. America influence in movies, TV, music, sports, and fastfood

4.4.3.2. S. Korea influence in TV drama, movies and pop music

4.4.3.3. Japan's influence children's TV, electronic games, entertainment technology

4.4.3.4. India's influence movies

4.4.3.5. Western Europe influence fashion, TV, art, philosophy

4.4.4. Rapid diffusion of pop culture causes consumer to lose track of hearth

4.4.4.1. Ex: S. Korea's K. Pop spreading through Asia

4.4.5. resistance combats popular culture displacing and replacing local culture

4.4.5.1. Ex: Influx in American/ British films in France

4.4.5.1.1. 40% of air time has to be french half of that has to be new

4.4.5.1.2. The french created policies and funds

5. How can local and popular cultures be seen in the cultural landscape

5.1. Cultural landscape shows tension between popular and local cultures

5.1.1. It reflects cultural values, norms and asthetics

5.1.2. placelesness can describe N America's major roadways; they look the same

5.2. 3 dimensions of cultural landscapes:

5.2.1. 1) architectural forms and planning ideas diffuse around the world

5.2.1.1. skyscrapers diffusio

5.2.1.1.1. Growth of skyscrapers in Dubai, UAE reflects world standings of the place

5.2.2. 2) individual businesses and products become widespread, leave a landscape stamp on far-flung places

5.2.2.1. reading the signs

5.2.2.2. streets of Rome

5.2.3. 3) borrowing landscape images blurs landscape distinctiveness

5.2.3.1. landscape features "transplanted" from one place to another

5.2.3.1.1. Las Vegas replicated Italian city of Venice

5.2.3.1.2. town center N America

5.3. Cultural landscapes of local cultures

5.3.1. observing local cultural landscapes can make you gain insights into social structures of local cultures

5.3.2. Ex: migration of Mormons to Utah

5.3.2.1. They were persecuted in the east, so they had farming villages to protect eachother

5.3.2.2. farsteeds to farm villages is a sign of their cultural landscape

6. Reteritorialization of Hip Hop

6.1. Hearths are the neighborhood in Los Angeles and New York

6.2. diffused to major cities of Europe

6.3. reterritorialization in Indonesia: they started to make their own hip hop

6.4. local culture concerns are reflected by the artists in their music