MITE6330 Learning Design & Technology

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MITE6330 Learning Design & Technology by Mind Map: MITE6330 Learning Design & Technology

1. Introduction to Instructional Design

1.1. What is Instructional Design?

1.1.1. "Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning theories and instructional strategies to ensure the highest quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analyzing learning needs and goals and developing a delivery system to address the learners’ needs. Analysis of learning needs brings about the rationale behind the development of instructional materials and activities. Instructional design includes testing and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities."

1.1.2. Readings:

1.1.2.1. http://www.instructionaldesigncentral.com/htm/IDinstructionaldesigndefinitions.htm#sthash.s1SncpcL.dpuf 27 Sep 2015

1.2. Why do we need Instructional Design?

1.2.1. The importance of instructional design is explained in the ADDIE process.

1.2.1.1. What is ADDIE?

1.2.1.1.1. ADDIE refers to the systematic instructional design process of analyzing, designing, developing, Implementing and evaluating to formulate an effective teaching and learning structure towards achieving the desired learning outcomes and performance.

1.2.1.1.2. Readings:

1.2.2. Readings:

1.2.2.1. http://proficiencegroup.com/the-importance-of-instructional-design-and-addie/ http://ww2.odu.edu/ao/instadv/quest/InstructionalDesign.html http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/111023/chapters/[email protected]%C2%A2.aspx

1.3. Who practices Instructional design?

1.3.1. Various professionals can practice and apply instructional design in their own area of specialization.

1.3.2. Practitioners: Instructional designers E-learning technologists Instructional technologists Educational technologists Learning Specialists

1.3.3. What are the expected qualities these instructional design related practitioners should have?

1.3.3.1. An instructional designer should have an open mind, the willingness to constantly learn at any point in time, humble enough to focus on what the learners need and not focus on what they think the learners need, creative and resourceful in finding ways to produce the most effective teaching and learning process.

1.3.3.2. Readings: http://theelearningcoach.com/elearning_design/10-qualities-of-the-ideal-instructional-designer/ http://elearningindustry.com/top-10-instructional-designer-skills http://www.upsidelearning.com/presentation-13-qualities-of-ideal-instructional-designer.asp

1.4. Lesson 1 Reflection

1.4.1. The concept of instructional design may sound very new to some people, but it is not a new concept. Outside formal education and training & development, instructional design is applied to designing other things around us that we encounter or use every day. Examples are designing an ATM machine where the target users is the general public of all ages. The idea is to design the interface of the machine that people can easily use to securely deposit and withdraw money in the most convenient way possible. Another example is the design of the lift buttons. How the number, open/close, and emergency buttons are designed needs instructional design that is aligned to the main purpose of bringing people to their desired floor levels faster and more convenient than taking the stairs. Instructional design may also be applied in writing a simple food recipes. Are you writing it for a pre-schooler who want to learn how to make a pie? Or will be for your grandmother who has years of experience in cooking but no experience preparing your very own pie recipe? All these examples exist in our everyday living and subconsciously, we are using the process of ADDIE to cope and master daily tasks for survival.

2. Learner Analysis and Task Analysis

2.1. Analysis (ADDIE): The first phase of ADDIE is Analysis. In this phase, in-depth exploration is done to identify and define existing performance gaps and other performance related problems in an organization.

2.1.1. Why do you need to conduct a Learner Analysis?

2.1.1.1. Analyzing the target learners plays a crucial role in learning design architecture as it is the focal point of the learning strategy, design, development, implementation and evaluation.

2.1.2. How can you conduct Learner Analysis?

2.1.2.1. There are various ways to gather information about the target learners and further analyse the necessary training and development to achieve the overall goals. Some tools can be pre-test, interviews, surveys, observation, etc. These tools allows further analysis not only towards the target learners but also surrounding factors like other people, environment and existing training materials.

2.1.2.1.1. Wiley’s Model

2.1.2.1.2. Other approaches to learner analysis

2.1.3. Why conduct Task Analysis?

2.1.3.1. Task analysis, similar to learner analysis, plays a major role in designing a learning design architecture. This is the process of looking at high level tasks and going down to the details of its subtasks, together with its purpose and how exactly these tasks can be achieved.

2.1.3.1.1. Mager and Pipe’s Flowchart

2.1.4. Readings:

2.1.4.1. http://ocw.metu.edu.tr/file.php/118/Week8/Wile_Why_Doers_Do.pdf http://www.humanperformancetechnology.org/hptmodels.html http://www.langevin.com/blog/2012/09/17/5-ways-learner-analysis-will-impact-instructional-design/ http://www.unco.edu/CETL/sir/sizing_up/learner_analysis.html http://www3.nd.edu/~lthiel/portfolio/documents/Learner%20Analysis.pdf https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/instructional-design-tips-cle-faculty-learner-nancy-a-?trkSplashRedir=true&forceNoSplash=true http://www.usability.gov/how-to-and-tools/methods/task-analysis.html http://www.usabilitybok.org/cognitive-task-analysis

2.2. Lesson 2 Reflection

2.2.1. It is always good to ask why performance gaps exist in a group of learners. Learners may not know about something because they do not have the intellectual ability to know, not enough exposure, no formal education or training. On the other hand, learners may not know about something because they choose not to know, something is hindering them to progress, no motivation with too much pressure, etc. In the real world, while it is good to spend time and resources to conduct learner and task analysis, not many institutions are actually spending the appropriate resources to conduct needs analysis. Thus, various learning/training resources are created and implemented without any beneficial impact to the learners nor the business. It is usually too late for companies to realize that. And after realizing that the learning program created and implemented was not effective and useful, companies end up doing another round of planning and creating a different learning program using the failed program as a basis, but still skipping the learners and task analysis portion. This can be related to why despite companies hiring the most suitable applicant, ends up getting disappointed with the performance they get. It is not always about the needs for training or the need to design a learning architecture. It is more about the organizational problems, politics, poor management or insufficient compensation and unhappy employees.

3. Learning Theories

3.1. Design (ADDIE) The Design phase is the formulation of learning architecture that is assumed to fill in the identified learning gaps during the analysis phase.

3.1.1. Learning Theories

3.1.1.1. Cognitive (Thinking to learn): This theory explains that learning is achieved through mental activities and processes that happen inside the human brain. Knowledge is kept and processed through the short and long term memory and may result to become tacit or explicit knowledge.

3.1.1.1.1. Bloom's Taxonomy

3.1.1.2. Behaviorist (Behaving is learning): A theory that assumes learners to be passive, responding to its environment. Learners starts off with zero knowledge and behaviour is developed through positive or negative reinforcement.

3.1.1.2.1. Classical vs Operant Conditioning

3.1.1.2.2. Reinforcement vs. Punishment

3.1.1.3. Constructivist (Experience to learn): A theory that argues that learning happens through experience and relates to the learner’s logical and conceptual growth.

3.1.1.3.1. Bruner's Constructivist Theory

3.1.1.3.2. Social Constructivism

3.2. Lesson 3 Reflection

3.2.1. Short-term memory retrieves information which we currently focus on and fades out instantly to move on to whichever our attention turns to. Short-term working memory is important in our psychological presence. It helps us in our daily activities like conversations with people, work, play, etc. Long-term memory, on the other hand, is like our own personal library that stores and retrieves information through associated networks. The short and long term memories work hand in hand to activate relevant information from what we learn in the past, to work towards our daily tasks. Short-term memory is like a push button that activates the long-term memory, which is like a bomb. I associated the long-term memory with a bomb as it contains so much passive information from our childhood to present, and just awaiting to be activated, released and reused. Looking at various learning theories may be boring and overwhelming for an academic requirement, but these theories have been part of my life since I started working. I did not realize how important to know as much learning theories as possible, as a person and as a professional. It is through these theories that we can understand other people, the way of life, how we see the future and we see humanity and life. A lot of other learning theories have evolved from these fundamental theories and this only shows how powerful our brain works when supported by external or environmental factors, society and experience.

3.3. Readings

3.3.1. http://www.lifecircles-inc.com/Learningtheories/learningmap.html http://infed.org/mobi/learning-theory-models-product-and-process/ https://explorable.com/memory-storage?gid=1596 http://www.learning-theories.com/behaviorism.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qfp3x_qx5IM

4. Designing Instructional Strategies

4.1. Design (ADDIE) The Design phase also covers the design of instructional strategies based on the appropriate learning theories identified from the learner and task analysis conducted to know more about the learners and performance gap. From these findings, it can then proceed to the formulation of learning objectives and learning design strategies to achieve the desired learning outcome.

4.1.1. Learning Objectives

4.1.1.1. Types of Learning Objectives

4.1.1.1.1. Terminal Learning Objectives

4.1.1.1.2. Enabling Learning Objectives

4.1.1.2. Bloom's Taxonomy

4.1.2. Learning Strategies

4.1.2.1. Gagne's 9 Steps of Instruction

4.1.2.1.1. 1. Gain attention

4.1.2.1.2. 2. Describe the learning objectives

4.1.2.1.3. 3. Stimulate recall of prior knowledge

4.1.2.1.4. 4. Present the learning content

4.1.2.1.5. 5. Provide learning guidance

4.1.2.1.6. 6. Provide opportunities for learners to practice what was learned

4.1.2.1.7. 7. Provide learners with feedback

4.1.2.1.8. 8. Assess learner performance

4.1.2.1.9. 9. Enhance learning retention and transfer

4.1.2.2. Merrill's First Principle of Instruction

4.1.2.2.1. Problem

4.1.2.2.2. Activation

4.1.2.2.3. Demonstration

4.1.2.2.4. Application

4.1.2.2.5. Integration

4.1.2.3. 17 Principles of Effective Instruction

4.1.2.3.1. 1. Begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning

4.1.2.3.2. 2. Present new material in small steps with student practice after each step

4.1.2.3.3. 3. Limit the amount of material students receive at one time

4.1.2.3.4. 4. Give clear and detailed instructions and explanations

4.1.2.3.5. 5. Ask a large number of questions and check for understanding

4.1.2.3.6. 6. Provide a high level of active practice for all students

4.1.2.3.7. 7. Guide students as they begin to practice

4.1.2.3.8. 8. Think aloud and model steps

4.1.2.3.9. 9. Provide models of worked-out problems

4.1.2.3.10. 10. Ask students to explain what they have learned

4.1.2.3.11. 11. Check the responses for all students

4.1.2.3.12. 12. Provide systematic feedback and corrections

4.1.2.3.13. 13. Use more time to provide explanations

4.1.2.3.14. 14. Provide many examples

4.1.2.3.15. 15. Reteach material when necessary

4.1.2.3.16. 16. Prepare students for independent practice

4.1.2.3.17. 17. Monitor students when they begin independent practice

4.2. Lesson 4 & 5 Reflection

4.2.1. Designing instructional strategies is the most interesting part of ADDIE for me. As an instructional designer you should be very familiar with various teaching and learning strategies and be able to integrate and formulate the most effective design towards achieving the desired outcome. While these principles can guide us to design an effective instructional material, it is a challenge how these principles can solely or partly be applied to one learning program or unit. Factors that make it a challenge for instructional designers are the learners’ background, availability of technology, readiness of content and other organizational issues for actual implementation. A good instructional designer for me requires not only familiarization, but also in-depth understanding of learning theories and principles together with the target learner background information to be able to come up with a learning design apt for the target learners. Designing an instruction is like a continuous revision and formulation of principles and processes, with a learner-focused mind. The teacher or facilitator may be very good in delivering a content with the use of the latest technology, but if the learners do not have the ability to use this kind of technology then learning is not achieved. Also, a learning design or structure may seem to be very structured and effective, but if there is no available resources to implement the design then it will not happen. Efforts and time used for planning and designing are put to waste.

4.3. Readings

4.3.1. http://www.ibe.unesco.org/fileadmin/user_upload/Publications/Educational_Practices/EdPractices_21.pdf https://www.aft.org/sites/default/files/periodicals/Rosenshine.pdf https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/learningobjectives.html http://www.celt.iastate.edu/teaching-resources/effective-practice/revised-blooms-taxonomy/ http://www.grayharriman.com/ADDIE_Writing_Learning_Objectives.htm http://www.learndash.com/9-step-instructional-process-that-just-works/ https://community.articulate.com/articles/how-to-design-your-e-learning-course-using-gagne-s-9-events-of-instruction http://edutechwiki.unige.ch/en/First_principles_of_instruction https://www.indiana.edu/~tedfrick/aect2002/firstprinciplesbymerrill.pdf

5. Development of Instructional Strategies

5.1. Development (ADDIE) The Development phase is the start of the production and testing of theories and strategies used in the learning design.

5.1.1. What are the types of Instructional Media?

5.1.1.1. Face-to-Face Teaching & Learning

5.1.1.1.1. Real objects or models

5.1.1.1.2. Printed texts/visuals

5.1.1.1.3. Display boards

5.1.1.1.4. Interactive whiteboards

5.1.1.1.5. Video/Audio materials

5.1.1.2. Online Teaching & Learning

5.1.1.2.1. E-learning courseware

5.1.1.2.2. Instructional videos

5.1.1.2.3. Online text/images

5.1.1.2.4. Online gamification/simulation

5.1.1.2.5. Podcasts

5.1.1.2.6. MOOCs/Distance learning

5.1.1.3. Blended Teaching & Learning

5.1.2. Storyboarding

5.1.3. What are some development issues?

5.1.3.1. Subject Matter Experts

5.1.3.1.1. Availability of subject matter experts is crucial to the development process.

5.1.3.2. Development Timeline

5.1.3.2.1. Development of instructional materials need sufficient time to ensure quality and that requirements are met.

5.1.3.3. Available Resources

5.1.3.3.1. Resources may include, content and development experts, software, skills, time, budget, etc.

5.1.3.4. Development Team Expertise

5.1.3.4.1. It is crucial to identify the required people with the necessary skills to ensure that the intended learning design strategy will be achieved. Involving people who are not capable to do the required tasks may need longer development time and quality will be sacrificed.

5.2. 12 Principle of Multimedia Learning

5.3. Lesson 6 Reflection

5.3.1. I look at the development stage more as a team effort combining the different expertise of the key stakeholders. At this stage, the instructional designer will need to collaborate with the SMEs, graphics designer, programmer, project manager, project owner, etc. to work on the development. While it is the graphic designers and programmers who are doing the actual development tasks, other stakeholders will work towards smooth management, quality and keep the action plans on track based on the timeline set. Another realization is that as more instructional technology are becoming user-friendly to end users, instructional designers need to keep up with the technological developments and ensure that they know how to use 1 or 2 types of software or authoring tool. Knowledge on various technology for learning design is a competitive edge for professionals in various industries.

5.4. Readings

5.4.1. https://distance.fsu.edu/docs/instruction_at_fsu/chptr9.pdf http://www.nwlink.com/~donclark/hrd/media.html https://www.hartford.edu/academics/faculty/fcld/data/documentation/technology/presentation/powerpoint/12_principles_multimedia.pdf

6. Implementation of Instructional Strategies

6.1. Implementation (ADDIE) The Implementation phase is when the designed and developed instructional project is applied, presented and delivered to the target learning group.

6.1.1. Types of Training Implementation

6.1.1.1. Train-the-trainer

6.1.1.2. Classroom Training

6.1.1.3. Online teaching & learning

6.1.1.4. On-the-job training

6.1.1.5. Just-in-time learning

6.1.1.6. Learning Reinforcements

6.1.2. Implementation Plan

6.1.2.1. 1. Plan for success

6.1.2.2. 2. Do it right

6.1.2.3. 3. Set priorities

6.1.2.4. 4. Delegate responsibilities

6.1.2.5. 5. Monitor progress

6.1.2.5.1. Gantt Chart

6.1.3. What can be some possible implementation issues?

6.1.3.1. Technological Readiness

6.1.3.2. Learner Awareness

6.1.3.3. Logistical Requirements

6.2. Lesson 6 Reflection

6.2.1. The Implementation stage is the much awaited time for instructional designers to determine the effectiveness of the learning design strategy they created. Further review and evaluation will be conducted concurrent to the implementation to capture the learner response and be able to make interventions for any that may not be able to work. This stage is like the "moment of truth" since it is when the developed instructional material/program is presented to the target audience.

7. Learning Outcome Evaluation

7.1. Evaluation (ADDIE) This is the last phase of the ADDIE method. While it is usually the last part of any process, evaluation is practically ongoing in all phases of ADDIE before one phase is completed and will be ready to proceed to the next phase.

7.1.1. Evaluation Models

7.1.1.1. Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation Model

7.1.1.1.1. Reaction

7.1.1.1.2. Learning

7.1.1.1.3. Behavior

7.1.1.1.4. Results

7.1.1.2. Responsive Evaluation

7.1.1.3. Goal-Free Evaluation

7.1.1.4. Expertise/Accreditation Approach

7.1.1.5. Success Case Method

7.2. Lesson Reflection

7.2.1. It is important to measure the effectiveness and impact of a training program to determine the ways to improve its design or implementation in the future offerings. Evaluation is conducted to be able to provide feedback to all key stakeholders. This process will definitely help to improve the overall teaching and learning process. Evaluation plays an important role to assess the competency level of the learners for promotion. All the results and data collected during the evaluation can be used for applying for institutional accreditation. And for corporate business sector, evaluation can help them to identify the costs and how much ROI is obtained through the program implemented. Overall, evaluation process is one tedious process that needs budgeted resources beforehand for successful completion and future gains.

7.3. Readings

7.3.1. http://educationaltechnology.net/the-addie-model-instructional-design/ http://instructionaldesignandtraining.blogspot.com/2011/05/addie-evaluation-phase.html https://us.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/5068_Preskill_Chapter_5.pdf https://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/kirkpatrick.htm