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Instructional Design by Mind Map: Instructional Design
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Instructional Design

for handheld devices

Classification of educational mobile applications

Gay, Rieger, and Bennington (2002), productivity, communication and collaboration

Roschelle (2003), classroom response systems, participatory simulations, collaborative data gathering

Naismith et al. (2005), behaviourist, constructivist, situated, collaborative, informal and life-long learning

B. Patten et al. (2006), collaborative, constructionist, contextual

Functional framework

suggested by B. Patten et al. (2006)

administration, concentrate on, scheduling, calendars, grading, example of application, Due Yesterday Student Organiser, pedagogical underpinning, little pedagogical, focuses on educational domains, information storage, information retrieval, advantage, useful for, time management, logistics, limitations, cannot facilitate learning, cannot encourage learners to engage with topics

referential, types, office style tools, dictionaries, translators, e-books, examples, Microsoft Reader, Adobe Reader, Microsoft Pocket Word, Documents-to-Go, limitations, not particularly educationally inspired, tend to replicate traditional applications, if the area concerned did not have access to technical resources, do not scaffold or support knowledge construction, pedagogical underpinning, instructional, objective, support learners, through delivering large amounts of textual data onto a small and limited device

interactive, focus, engage users through a 'response and feedback' approach, examples, Study Cards, for graphing calculators, Sketchy, create users' own simple animations, objectives, elicit interactions, deliver appropriate feedback, features, can adopt various educational approaches, can provide valuable creative outlets, can support a variety of learning styles, pedagogical underpinning, drill and test type applications, behaviourist

microworld, limitation, not been widely developed for handheld devices, due to their limited computational power, example, Carom Billiards, explore simple geometric concepts through billiards games, objective, encourage creation and exploration in learners, pedagogical underpinning, constructionist, feature, allow learners to construct their own knowledge, using constrained models of real world domains

data collection, principle, record data and information about the environment using handheld devices, advantages, can be used to create learning experiences that are unfeasible or problematic without handheld computers, allow learners to access relevant content and record information at the same time, sub-categories, Scientific, focuses, encourage participants to learn more about their context through recording relevant information, provide immediate feedback through on-the-spot analysis, pedagogical underpinning, contextual, support field-trip methodology of learning, example, SENSE project, Reflective, allow learners to access content and diaries, encourage reflective practice, pedagogical underpinning, reflective, focus, storing information in the learning context for later evaluation and reflection, Multimedia, facilitate note taking in classes or meetings, multimedia data can provide the basis for reflection, pedagogical underpinning, constructivist, feature, require learners to construct new ideas or concepts based on their current and past knowledge

location aware, objective, contextualise learning activities, through enabling the learners to interact with their environment appropriately, feature, allow handhelds to interact with the learner in a context aware manner, by using, sensors, positioning systems, allow learners to engage with their context, examples, museum guides, augmented environments for treasure hunts, pedagogical underpinning, contextual

collaborative, objective, encourage knowledge sharing, use the learners's physical context and mobility at the same time, facilitate learner collaboration, examples, Syllable, problem solving game, Savannah, location based game

using Web 2.0 technology


By some propagators of Web 2.0, a phenomenon, leading to media revolution, giving crowds an increasingly louder voice, facilitating global democratization

By Daniel Churchill (2007), a metaphor for a spectrum of emerging novel Internet applications, stimulated by, rising expectations of users, creative efforts of industry and talented individuals, development of software and hardware capabilities


social spaces, example, MySpace, resources sharing and referencing systems, examples, YouTube,, Flickr, Napster, CiteUlike, actions that one can do, add a resource, create their own tags or labels descriptive of that resource, add comments, provide recommendations, indicate the value of a resource, objective, engage people in collective activities in such spaces, features, converse and exchange resources and ideas, have fun, perform actions on information and resources, create, manage, publish, limit accessibility by others, able to learn and improve based on users' activities, example of application, online store, advantages, users add value, the system gets better as more people use it

podcasting, protocol, syndication feed, content, audio, video

Web-based publication systems, blogs, types, text-based, linklogs, moblogs, vlogs, audilogs, creators, ordinary Internet users, product, a Web page consisting of periodical articles, wikis, creators, ordinary Internet users, feature, support users to participate in collective publishing activities, product, Internet-based informational resources

characteristics of innovative applications of Internet

Read-Write Web, features, consume information, create information, contribute information to web sites, by publishing the content

Subscribing to Information, processes, subscribe to an information service, information is delivered when it is available, example, RSS (Really Simple Syndication)

The Internet as a platform, role of the Internet, a platform that contains tools traditionally native to desktop computers, example of application, Google Docs, advantages, free for use, one can always access the latest version

Open source, design, hackability, remixability, features, databases are open, information can be reused, information can be remixed with other Web 2.0 systems, example, Weather Bonk

using it in education

indicators, emergence of terms such as 'E-learning 2.0', increased use of blogging in classrooms, attempts to use podcasting in teaching and learning, attempts to design learning management systems based on Web 2.0, emergence of books dedicated entirely to Web 2.0 in teaching and learning

applications that can be further promoted, new forms of assessment, example, digital portfolio, use of Internet-mediated social learning space, use of new forms of collaborative learning, new models and methods for design of learning objects and other types of digital curriculum, utilize, multimedia expressions, open source, remixing of data, new models for resources sharing and support for technology integration of communities of teachers, new generations of learning management systems

concerning the nature of mind

models of mind

Suggested by Cunningham (1996)

mind as computer, view of instruction, learning as information processing, purposes of instruction that should achieve, efficient communication of information, effective strategies for remembering, cognitive skills approach

mind as brain, view of instruction, learning as experiential growth and pattern recognition, focus of instruction, experiences and activities for promoting individual development of the appropriate cognitive networks or mind maps, cognitive constructivist approach

mind as rhizome, view of instruction, learning as a sociocultural dialogic activity, purpose of instruction that should achieve, provide opportunities for embedding learning in authentic tasks leading to participation in a community of practice, social constructivist approach

Learner-centered view of collaborative technology

14 basic principles, originate from, American Psychological Association, evolved from, 12 learner-centered principles, drafted by a task force, American Psychological Association, Mid-continent Regional Educational Laboratory, cognitive and metacognitive factors, nature of the learning process, nature of learning process that leads to successful in learning complex subject matter, intentional, sources of meaning construction, information, experience, goals of the learning process, factors lead to successful learning for the successful learner, time, support, instructional guidance, product of successful learning, meaningful and coherent representations of knowledge, construction of knowledge, action that the successful learner can do, link new information with existing knowledge in meaningful ways, strategic thinking, what the successful learner can create and use to achieve complex learning goals, a reportoire of thinking, reasoning strategies, thinking about thinking, involves, higher order strategies for selecting and monitoring mental operations, objective, facilitate creative and critical thinking, context of learning, environmental factors that influences learning, culture, technology, instructional practices, motivational and affective factors, the roles that points to, novelty, optimal difficulty, curiosity, personal choice, control, effort, emotions, motivational and emotional influences on learning, involves, learner's motivation to learn, affects, what and how much the learner is learnt, affected by, emotional states of the learner, intrinsic motivation to learn, factors that contribute to motivation to learn, creativity, higher order thinking, natural curiosity, can be stimulated by tasks, optimal difficulty and novelty, relevant to personal interests, provide for personal choice and control, effects on motivation on effort, involves, acquisition of complex knowledge and skills, requires, extended learner effort, guided practice, developmental and social factors, developmental influences on learning, domains of differential development leading to effective learning, physical, intellectual, emotional, social, social influences on learning, social interactions, interpersonal relations, communication with others, individual factor, individual differences in learning, strategies, approaches, capabilities, learning and diversity, learners' background differences that lead to effective learning, linguistic, cultural, social, consequence of using global communication tools, force learners to consider variations between the way they view the world and those individuals from different backgrounds, standards and assessments, involves, setting appropriately high and challenging standards, assessment, the learner, learning progress, diagnostic, process, outcome assessment

challenge of using learner-centered teaching practices and technology, lack the support and direction to use collaborative technology

what assistances teachers need to use the 14 basic principles, identify opportunities for the use of the principles in instruction, evaluate the effectiveness of themselves

constructivist view on collaborative technology

problems of employing constructivism faced by practicing educators and teachers, wherewithal is not provided to reconstitute and embed constructivist ideas within their personal philosophies and teaching practices, not recognize that they operate from a constructivist paradigm, few guidelines exist for implementing and assessing constructivism, lack of time and energy

variations of constructivist theory, suggested by Cobb (1994), cognitive constructivist, representative, Piaget, focus, individual constructions of knowledge discovered in interaction with the environment, making learning more relevant, building on student prior knowledge, posing contradictions, addressing misconceptions, social constructivist, representative, Vygotsky (1978), the view of learning, connections with and appropriation from the sociocultural context, focus, human dialogue, interaction, negotiation, collaboration, similarities of the viewpoints, in terms of the nature of educational practices and orientations, active, generative, in terms of teachers, roles, learning consultants, guides, function, perform critical learning

technology tools, examples, Internet, Local Area Network tools, places available, public schools, universities, opportunities provided to students, explore personal interests, expand their prior experiences, enable teachers to structure learning activities, address student misconceptions, seek student elaboration of their answers, pose questions

sociocultural view on collaborative technology

Vygotskian psychology, contexts that individual mental functioning is inherently situated in, social interactional, cultural, institutional, historical

theories and principles for computer supported collaborative learning (CSCL), mediation, artifacts in one's social environment that affect individual learning and development, institutions, settings, culture, forms of mediational tools and signs, mathematical symbols, artwork, diagrams, software visualizations, electronic messages, World Wide Web (WWW) course web pages, student conferences, other electronically displayed information, zone of proximal development (ZPD), definition, by Vygotsky, the distance between a child's independent problem-solving level and that obtained under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers, location where it can be formed, an individual learner, in the interaction among the people and tools during involvement in a common activity, the learner, coparticipants, the tools available, internalization, use of this process, achieve higher mental functioning, suggested by Vygotsky, cognitive apprenticeship, steps involved, mentors negotiate and support novice learners through experiences suitable to their ZPDs, mentors gradually give up their control of the task to the student, the learners begin to internalize standard cultural practices when they gradually assume greater task responsibility, teaching methods, modeling, to illustrate, performance standards, verbalize invisible processes, coaching, actions involved, observe and supervise students, objective, guide students toward expert performance, scaffolding and fading, scaffolding, support what the learner cannot do, fading, gradually remove the support when the learner displays his/her competence, articulation, action involved, encourage students to voice out their reasoning and problem-solving processes, reflection, action involved, foster student reflection and self-awareness, exploration, action involved, push students to explore and apply their problem-solving skills, assisted learning, nature of adept to sociocultural teaching, responsive, not by, assigning tasks, relying on text readings, fostering standard practices, ways for teachers to assist in the learning process, modeling, feedback, contingency management, means of managing instruction, performance feedback, positive reinforcement, instructing, approach, direct instruction, objective, to provide, clarity, needed content, missing information, cognitive structuring, questioning, actions involved, request a verbal response from learners, support learners with mental functions that cannot produce alone, task structuring, action involved, provide cognitive task structuring by explaining and organizing the tasks, criterion of tasks, within student's ZPDs, teleapprenticeship, components, other strategies, global networking technologies, involves, experts and peer demonstrating ideas, posing questions, offering insights, providing relevant information when needed, scaffolded instruction, people involved, mentor, guide, action involved, provide support or assistance necessary for a learner to complete a tasks that cannot complete without the help, forms of support, prompts, hints, comments, explanations, questions, counter examples, suggestions, results of having assistance in the standpoint of the learner, apply for, problems beyond the learner's independent ability, actions that can achieve, solve the problem, generate solutions, gain insights, application, examples, learning guides, electronic experts, function, initiate learning activities, by means of, timely messages, questions, quotes, importance, young children, reason, can aid the acquisition of oral communication, intersubjectivity, definition, a temporary shared collective understanding or common framework among learning participants, advantages, exchange ideas more easily, new knowledge can be built, meanings can be negotiated, example type of tools, collaborative communication tools, advantage, promote new forms of social interaction and productivity, might encourage learners to consider alternative perspectives and viewpoints, by providing, expert feedback windows, interactive debate forums, juxtapositions of opinions, scrollable dialogue-tracking devices, private reflection notes, peer commenting windows, public text-pointing devices, interactive prompts available on demand, product, mental shared spaces, examples, electronic whiteboards, conferencing tools, group brainstorming tools, activity setting as unit of analysis, analysis of human activity in real settings, things that can achieve, link individuals and social systems, provide insights into different aspects, cultural practices, individual higher order thinking, can let one understand, groups or individuals, products or processes, cognitions or cultures, sociocultural context, mental functioning of individuals operating within it, distributed intelligence in a learning community, tools, activity system, components, subjects, rules, communities, objects, divisions of labour, functions, mediate the activity, connect humans to objects and other people



wide range of skills and activities on instructions, planning, selection, preparation, presentation, evaluation, modification

definition of the field of instructional design and technology

categories of activities, analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation, management

items being identified, research, theory, practice

recognize that performance technology movement has influences professional practices

cores of the field

use of media for instructional purposes

use of systematic instructional design procedures

source of decision making

concerning, learners, learning strategies

nature of knowledge, research-based, context-free

criteria of designing a solution in instructional design model

correctly identify the problem

develop materials, purposes, implement, implement to evaluate

issues considered in most models

students' background and characteristics

curriculum resources or textbooks

goals and objectives

results of analysis of previous instruction and recommendations for changes

media and material

teaching strategies or learning activities

tests and other assessment strategies

factors that have been ignored

underlying issues that designs themselves bring to their design endeavor, knowledge, assumptions, beliefs, theories of actions

the degree to which individuals' beliefs constrain what they will observe empirically


micro-design model, phases involved, analysis, design, development and implementation, evaluation and revision, characteristics, prescriptive, operating within clearly defined boundaries, aiming at stability, exception, adjustments to increase effectiveness, externally controlled system

marcodesign model, type of systems, societal-based, purposes, establish and recognize such systems of learning resources and arrangements, connect these systems with the learning experience in education, characteristics, open to changes, environment, systems that comprise the complex systems of education, continuous and dynamic, participative and interactive, internally controlled

alias of systematic instructional design procedures

the systems approach

instructional systems design (ISD)

instructional development

instructional design

processes involved in most of the instructional design models

concerning the instructional problems, analysis

concerning the instructional procedures and materials intended to solve the problems, design, development, implementation, evaluation

reasons of not being used by teachers

complexity of school systems

lack of support for teachers when learning instructional systems design

impracticality of the model for practitioners

recommendations of improving existing instructional models

social context must become the object and source of the design

focus on an approach in which the design problems and strategies or solutions evolve as the designers interact with the social and cultural system and subsystems

people who are affected by the design should be actively participate in the decision making process


during World War II

people, examples, psychologists, aspect of knowledge, evaluation, testing, educators, responsibilities, conduct research, develop training materials for the military services, based on instructional principles derived from, research and theory on instruction, learning, human behavior, assess the skills of trainees, select the individuals who were most likely to benefit from particular training programs

immediately after World War II

people involved, psychologists, duty, solving instructional problems, some of them worked in research organizations, example, American Institutes for Research, point of view about training, as a system, innovative procedures they had developed, analysis, design, evaluation

mid-1950s to mid-1960s

major factor in the development of the systems approach, The programmed instruction movement, initiated by, Skinner (1954), proposed the desired characteristics of effective instructional materials, alias, programmed instructional materials, characteristics, present instruction in small steps, require overt responses to frequent questions, provide immediate feedback, allow for learner self-pacing

empirical approach to solving educational problems, collect data regarding the effectiveness of the materials, identify instructional weaknesses, revise the materials accordingly

technology of instruction, definition, a small but effective self-instructional system, steps of successful construction, suggested by Heinich (1970), analyse and break down contents into specific behavioral objectives, devise the necessary steps to achieve the objectives, set up procedures to try out and revise the steps, validate the program against attainment of the objectives

writing objectives, the need was recognized by Robert Mager, elements that should be included, a description of desired learner behaviors, the conditions under which the behaviors are to be performed, the standards by which the behaviors are to be judged

The criterion-referenced testing movement, early 1960s, emergence of, criterion-referenced testing, method, measure how well an individual can perform a particular behavior or set of behaviors, irrespective of how well others perform, opposite to, norm-referenced testing, property, spread out the performance of the learners, result, some students doing well on a test, others doing poorly

Robert Gagne, published the first edition of 'The Conditions of Learning' in 1965, contents, 5 domains of learning outcomes, verbal information, intellectual skills, psychomotor skills, attitudes, cognitive strategies, 9 events of instruction, gain attention, objective, capture students' attention, when to do, start of lesson, methods, animated title screen with sound effects, aim, startle the senses with auditory and visual stimuli, thought-provoking question or interesting fact, aim, motivate learning by curiosity, inform learners of objectives, objectives, initiate the internal process of expectancy, motivate the learner to complete the lesson, when to do, early in each lesson, roles of learning objectives, the basis for assessment, the basis for possible certification, stimulate recall of prior learning, principle, the learning process can be facilitated through associating new information with prior knowledge, methods, ask questions about previous experiences, an understanding of previous concepts, present the content, properties of the contents, chunked and organized meaningfully, explained and then demonstrated, method to appeal to different learning modalities, use of media, text, graphics, audio narration, video, provide learning guidance, objective, help learners encode information for long-term storage, strategies, examples, non-examples, case studies, graphical representations, mnemonics, analogies, elicit performance, involves, practice of the new skill or behavior, objectives, provide an opportunity for learners to confirm their correct understanding, increase learners' likelihood of retention, provide feedback, objective, provide feedback of learners' performance, specific, immediate, assess performance, methods, post-test, final assessment, learners cannot receive, additional coaching, feedback, hints, enhance retention and transfer to the job, ways to achieve, performance focus, incorporating design and media

Michael Scriven (1967), types of evaluation, formative, definition, try out drafts of instructional materials with learners before they were in their final form, advantages, enable educators to evaluate the effectiveness of materials when they are still in the formative stage, educators can revise the materials, if necessary, before they are produced in their final form, summative, definition, instructional materials are tested after they are in their final form

early and mid 1960s, systematically designing instructional materials, concepts involved, task analysis, objective specification, criterion-referenced testing


fields that used instructional design process, military, academia, objective, help faculties improve the quality of their instruction, using, media, instructional design procedures, business and industry, objective, improve the quality of training, international arena, objective, solve instructional problems, countries involved, South Korea, Liberia, Indonesia


instructional design process, fields that are still using, strong interest, business and industry, military, international arena, had minimal impact, public school arena, curriculum development efforts that had been done, use of basic instructional design processes, some instructional design textbooks for teachers were produced, higher education, factor that pose a major effect, increasing interest of using microcomputers for instructional purposes, result, switch the attentions of many professionals in the instructional design field, producing computer-based instruction, develop new models of instructional design, purpose, accommodate the interactive capabilities of such technology, begin to use computers as tools, purpose, automate some instructional design tasks


pose significant impact on instructional design principles and practices, factors, performance technology movement, result, many instructional designers, conduct more careful analyses of the causes of performance problems, discover that poor training was not the cause of poor performance, solve performance problems by, prescribing non-instructional solutions, growing interest in, constructivism, learners have to, solve complex and realistic problems, work together to solve problems, examine problems from multiple perspectives, take ownership of the learning process, become aware of their own role in the knowledge construction process, rapid growth in the use and development of, electronic performance support systems, nature, computer-based systems, objective, provide workers with help they need to perform certain job tasks in a form that is most helpful at the time they need, components, an information base, contains, essential work-related information, a series of work activities, feature, workers can access as desired, intelligent coaching and expert advisement systems, function, provide guidance in performing various activities, customized performance support tools, function, automate and greatly simplify job tasks, advantage, reduce the need for training, rapid prototyping, steps involved, develop a prototype product quickly in the very early stages of an instructional design project, go through a series of rapid tryout and revision cycles until an acceptable version of the product is produced, advantage, producing quality instructional materials in less time, rapidly increasing interest in using the Internet, purpose, distance learning, reminders in developing such programs, cannot simply replicate instruction delivered in classrooms for the on-line version, must be carefully design what can and cannot be incorporated into Internet-based courses, knowledge management, objective, improve the performance of an organization, involve, explicit and tacit knowledge within the organization, identification, documentation, dissemination, can be implemented using, database programs, groupware, intranets, responsibilities of instruction designers, improve human performance, improve access to useful organizational knowledge

in digital environments

some facts about conventional instructional approaches

approaches of knowing learning goals, use of well-organized materials, sequences, resources, activities, methods

purpose, support context-specific, user-centered learning

speed of development, slow

resource-based learning environments (RBLEs)

involve, reuse of available assets to support varied learning needs

usage, support an individual's effort to deal with information to meet particular learning needs, locate, analyze, interpret, adapt

where to find such environment, diverse systems, features, resource intensive, emphasize intentional learning, involves, learner, behaviors in the learning process, purposeful, effortful, self-regulated, active engagement, engage the learner actively in different cognitive processes, compilation, evaluation, manipulation, generation

components, resources, definition, things that have the potential to support learning, media, people, places, ideas, processes needed to establish its contextual meaning, contextualization, determine situational relevance and meaning, recontextualization, enable the use of information gleaned from various resources, types, predigital, nature, analog, component, metadata, sources, library classifications, catalog indexes, definition, a collection of object attribute tags in Web-based documents, catalog records in printed resources, constraints, their initial design, static in nature, difficult to use them to address different needs, used intact, present information in ways that can reflect, cultural perspectives, interpretations, reasons of challenges in using and conveying them, emphasis has been keyed to external standards, wide-spread distribution without comprehensive retrieval system, constraints of the technology, pedagogical techniques, physical tape, properties of typically available ones, directed, focused, limited in scope, fixed ideas, statically represented, examples, textbooks, CD-ROMs, videotapes, digital, features, as dynamic and malleable as their creators allow, multiple resources can be aggregated within a single application, can be used in theoretically unlimited combinations, nature, static, properties, have stable contents, information is captured at a particular moment in time, limitations, the data presented can quickly become obsolete or inaccurate, make the usage of such resources complicated in RBLE, reason, lengthy publication cycles, examples, newspaper acticles, print-based textbooks, encyclopedias magazine, dynamic, property, undergo frequent and continual change, examples, humans, Web-based resources, usages, objects to think with and through, vehicles for representing domain content, contexts, externally directed, involves, external agent, examples, teachers, instructional designers, actions, establish the venue, meter the pace and sequence of resources, facilitate the interactions and related learning activities, establish goals for the learner to achieve, learner generated, properties, the learner define goals based on unique needs, assistance is provided at the learner's request, negotiated, involves, a context established to meet predefined goals, establishing individual meaning, defining subproblems, selection and implementation of strategies, negotiation of the relative value of the resources, generating additional questions to pursue, considering alternative approaches, tools, usages, locating, accessing and manipulating resources, interpreting and evaluating their usefulness, enable learners to organize and present their understanding in concrete ways, types, searching, usages, offer links to a broad range of resources, enabling access to primary and secondary resources in a variety of formats, applications, library catalogs, example, Georgia Integrated Libraries, search engines, examples, Yahoo, Google, AltaVista, processing, function, provide cognitive support in processing information, collection, organization, integration, generation, manipulating, function, provide means to test beliefs, ideas and theories, communicating, function, enable the sharing of ideas in a variety of forms, text, audio, video, types, asynchronous, examples, e-mail, bulletin boards, threaded discussions, synchronous, examples, chat rooms, CU-See Me, scaffolds, conceptual, function, assist the learner in making decisions, what to consider, prioritize what is important, metacognitive, function, help learners make assessment as they learn, what they know, what to do, objectives, remind learner to, reflect on the goal or problem, consider alternative ways to address a goal or problem, help learners organize their knowledge, involves, cognitive load, can be reduced, learners can engage in more complex processes, examples, critical thinking, reflection, definition, the total amount of mental activity imposed on working memory at an instance of time, depends on, the number of elements need to be attended to, components, intrinsic, property, cannot be changed, depends on, complexity or difficulty level of the information or the content to be learnt, germane, usage, help building new complex schema in a successful manner, extraneous, definition, unnecessary mental processing, property, does not contribute to learning, source, the techniques in which the information to be learnt is presented, procedural, function, help learners use resources, advantages, clarify requirements, reduce cognitive load, strategic, function, provide alternative approaches to engaging a task, source, an expert, embedded within a specific context

challenges, standards and conventions for creating and distributing digital resources remain inconsistent, reasons, The software used to distribute the resources is changed frequently, Explosion of information, the role and design of enabling contexts have not been well established, aspects that context is critical in the implementation of RBLEs, the specific space in which the learning will occur, the larger system in which the RBLE is implemented, resource credibility, content validity and reliability are unregulated, ways to know the trustworthiness of source materials, greater regulation and control of Web resources, critical thinking skills have to be honed, cultivation of information literacy skills, source evaluation techniques have to be enhancing, ways to cope with this challenge, increase confidence in the resources used for educational purposes, promote necessary skills among teachers and learners who engage resources of all kinds, critical thinking, evalutation, directed approaches tend to engender compliance and reliance over independent thinking, by-product, compliant cognition, definition, the tendency for students to simply comply with the standards and expectations of those who establish and implement instruction, nature, unintended, what learners expect, explicit guidance and support, concerning, what should be studied, what kind of learning is required, when something has been learnt successfully, what should be provided in RBLEs, access to resources, grounded approaches that support the intentions and needs of those who access resources for individual learning purposes, students lack sufficient metacognitive awareness and comprehension monitoring skill to make effective choices, skills need to engage in resource-based approaches, identify accurately their learning needs, locate relevant resources, evaluate the utility of such resources, evolve learner's strategies and understanding accordingly, contemporary school accountability standards typically emphasize breadth over depth, while open-learning RBLEs emphasize depth over breadth, phenomenon in contemporary schools, teachers confront the need to cover all content in a given subject area or grade level, driving forces, curriculum goals defined by, states, school districts, the scope and structure of available resources, method to resolve this challenge, convince and assure different parties that using multiple and diverse resources can enhance student learning and performance, teachers, administrators, parents, learners, generative learning goals require varied rather than singular learning strategies, reasons, learning needs are defined spontaneously by individual teachers or learners, nature of goals in such environment, generative, individual, method of handling this challenge, provide multiple perspectives, objective, to provide varied strategies to meet individual needs, student-centered learning complicates identification and selection of appropriate resources, facts about resource selection and use for external goals, people involved, teachers, guides by, curriculum scope and sequence, state adoption lists, all of the above, reasons, teachers need to locate, identify and select resources that match context-specific needs of individual learners, the relevance of the candidate resources is dependent on the learner's need and intent, the resource universe is vast, but not well organized for specific learning needs, resources designed to support a given approach or perspective may not support different perspectives, reasons, most resources are not inherently designed to support different contextual uses and purposes, most educational resources are designed for use in a linear fashion to align with incremental steps in the instructional process, RBLE may cultivate transferable skills critical for living and working in the digital era independent of the particular epistemological perspective underlying their use, skills that can be acquired and enhanced in the context established by RBLEs, critical thinking, problem solving, self-direction, given the ability of RBLEs to support varied epistemological perspectives, designers need to adhere to grounded practices that support individual needs and intentions, characteristic of RBLEs, can support varied perspectives on teaching and learning, epistemologically neutral, meaning, can be implemented in highly regulated environments, can be implemented in open-ended constructivist environments, actions that a designer has to do to represent the features and requirements associated with a given epistemological perspective, be aware of the framework adopted, need a clear understanding of how different frameworks influence the way that a learning environment is created and implemented, the process used to integrate multiple resources into a coherent learning environment has not been well established, reasons caused by learners and designers, accustomed to using resources for specific purposes, not accustomed to reusing resources developed for one purpose for other purposes, things needed to overcome this challenge, research, purpose, demonstrate how resources can be linked to meet varied needs, strategies, purpose, assist learners with analyzing and interpreting resources in terms of their validity and reliability, RBLE participants lack necessary skills to access, process and use information and ideas

things that an individual should do to manage their learning or teaching

recognize and clarify learning needs

plan a strategy to address the needs

locate and access resources

evaluate the veracity and utility of the resources

modify approaches based on an assessment of learning progress

concerning technology-based learning

influence by

private theories, developed by teachers, sources, observations, interactions, instruction, inferences, teachers' prior experience and beliefs brought to the environment, difference between teachers' theories, in terms of, institutional influences

factors that affect instructional decision making and technology integration

learning, involves, knowledge and how it is acquired, useful teaching and learning strategies, ways learning can be evaluated

students, issues, ability, gender, class participation, self-concept, independence, social competence, classroom behavior, work habits, involves, how they learn, their limitations, their ability to use technology, learning, collaboration

teacher, involves roles in learning in different contexts, classroom, technology-based environment

technology, involves, use of technology in class, ways in which technology-based learning differs from classroom learning, limitations and benefits of technology for learning

institutional influences

knowledge of curriculum and pedagogical content

strategy for preparing individuals for the contemporary world

shift, from, direct instruction, actions involved, teachers guide their students, think in particular ways, arrive at correct answers, to, student-centered pedagogical practices, students use technology as a tool, accessing, analysing and transforming data and information, organising knowledge, creating representations of what they know

design framework

properties, sensitive to the teachers' private theories, initiate reflections that leads teachers to focus on theories of learning

ways to maintain focus on learning, teachers, plan a learning task before considering any content resources, must be freed from instructional expectations to develop resources on their own, should be offered training in the facilitation of technology-based learning, students, should be considered in terms of their ability to successfully complete a learning task, objective, appropriate support can be planned, design process, should be sensitive to teachers' concern about their technical skills

issues that resist changes and continuously driving teachers towards direct instruction

students, involve, private theories, learning abilities and confidence

assessment, involve, private theories, purpose of assessment, institutional influences, frequency, mode

technology, involve, private theories, confidence of one's own technical skills, institutional influences, hardware and software provided

management, involve, institutional influences, expectations, communication of initiatives

involves theory of concepts


general definitions, by David H. Jonassen (2006), mental representation of objects, events or other entities, by Plato, the essences of things, properties, abstract, unworldly, eternal, by neuroscientists, patterns of synaptic connections, in the aspect of psychology, discrete psychological phenomena

its role, basis for, meaning making, communication, essential in human reasoning, categorization, learning, memory, deductive inference, explanation, problem solving, generalization, analogical inference, language comprehension, language production

functions, enable humans to store information about categories of objects, events or entities economically, purpose, describe and reason about every instance of the category, classification, support inferences, purposes, understanding, explaining, predicting, construct new, more complex concepts, assumption, heterarchical relationships among concepts

current emphasis on conceptual change, meaning derives from concepts-in-use, understanding is constructed from conceptual reorganization of personal theories of the world

similarity views, categorized into, classical, definition of concepts, representations of classes of objects, symbols or events that are grouped together based on common properties or attributes, prescribes a set of instructional strategies for teaching concepts, example, component display theory, a sequence of instruction, define the attributes, presents example-nonexample pairs of examples of the concepts, practice in classifying new instances, limitations, specifying defining properties that exclude all nonmembers while capturing all properties of members is easier said than done, reason, there is almost always an exception for every essential characteristic, goodness of examples effect, meaning, some examples are more or less typical of the category than others, belongs to, essentialist view, holds, what makes an entity a particular thing is the existence of essential properties, assumption, categorization is driven by similarity among examples of any category, probablistic, also called, prototype view, assumption, categorization is driven by similarity among examples of any category, method to classify instances, a probabilistic account of features, method of representing concepts, prototypes in memory, limitations, concepts that have high family resemblance will maximize similarity within categories while minimizing similarity between categories, difficult to explain combinations of concepts, exemplar, method for humans to learn concepts, induce concept descriptions from examples or by combining previously existing concepts, also known as, relational view, intermediate between classical and actional view, components of concepts, probabilistic, exemplar, method of judgement, instances, degree of membership in a concept, concepts, in relationship to other concepts, similar to, semantic network theories, stress the importance of relational organization of concepts within a network of related concepts, assumptions, similarity between instances, increases as the number of features or properties they share increases, decreases as a function of mismatching or nonessential attributes, features that determine similarity are at the same level of abstractness, similarity features are sufficient to describe conceptual structure, limitations, the meaning of a word is not inherent to the word and is not derived from the objects or events that it stands for, not able to account for concepts in use, pay no attention to the goals of the categorizer, lack coherence, reason, concepts vary so much within class, consequence, concepts can only be described in terms of their place in multidimensional space, not able to account for the varying functions of concepts

alternative views, actional, properties of concepts, active, constructive, intentional, change meaning over time, in different contexts and for different purposes, definition of concepts, ways of organizing our experiences, theory-based, definition, concepts are organized by theories, focuses on instruction, attributes, explicitly represented relations of attributes and concept combinations, method of representing concepts, in networks of concepts, formed by, causal and explanatory links, sharing of properties picked out as relevant

components of, cognition, manifesting strength, coherence, commitment to existing theories

conceptual change

definition, by Vosniadou (1999), the cognitive process of adapting and restructuring existing theories

occurs, within, a conceptual framework, when learners change their understanding, the concepts they use, how the concepts are organized

depends on different types of processes, metacognitive, motivational, affective

types, evolutionary, Piagetian definition, learners gradually accommodate existing knowledge into more coherent and better-organized knowledge structures, revolutionary, criteria of occurence, information to be understood is inconsistent with personal beliefs and presuppositions, current conceptions are unable to interpret personal experiences, incapable of solving problems, violate epistemological standards

involves, theory building and research, methods, analyzing student interaction protocols while engaging in problem solving or explaining, structured interviews, using, concept maps, also known as, semantic networks, used to represent, a pattern of concepts, actions required for its construction, identify important concepts, arrange the concepts spatially, specify relationships among the concepts, criteria that should be assessed for, the number of levels of hierarchies, how interconnected the concepts are, which concepts are the most embedded

implications for assessment, propositions, things to be assessed, acquisition of individual concepts, the structural relationships among groups or concepts, involve, eliciting conceptual patterns, methods, free word associations, working mechanism, learners generate word association lists that immediately come to mind when presented with each concept in a domain as a stimulus, method of rating similarity, calculate relatedness coefficients, generate correlation matrix using the coefficients, similarity ratings, working mechanism, ask individuals to rate in terms of a constant scale the degree of similarity between pairs of concepts or ideas, method of rating similarity, summarize the ratings in a distance matrix, card sort, steps involve, presenting learners with a group of cards on which single concepts are written, the learner sorts the concept cards into different piles according to their similarity of meaning, label the piles of sorted cards, representing conceptual patterns, methods, cognitive maps, function, represent patterns of concepts visually, produced using, multidimensional statistical analysis, types of analysis, qualitative, involves, examining clusters of concepts, examining the meaning implied by different dimensions, quantitative, involves, using the Cartesian coordinates of each concept in various statistical analysis, limitation, difficult to comprehend multidimensional solutions, pathfinder networks, ways of representing concepts, concepts as nodes, relationships as links connecting the nodes, its role, the primary unit of analysis, criteria that should be assessed for, comprehensiveness, organization, accuracy, concepts-in-use, function, assess learners' conceptual frameworks, methods, semistructured interviews, involves, asking generative questions, think-aloud problem solving, mechanism, requires learners to think aloud while they are solving problems, alternative approach, thinking aloud paired problem solving, advantage, more systematic, people involved, problem solver, action, vocalize what he/she is constructing or recalling while solving a problem, assumptions, methods, inferences, conclusions, listener, action, continually checks the accuracy of the problem solver's actions or assumptions

implications for instruction, propositions, reasons of focusing on propositions but not links, conceptual understanding relies on a coherent, integrated set of concepts, the process of linking two concepts by a descriptive relationship enables, two most basic forms of human reasoning, comparison-contrast, causal, factor affecting conceptual change most acutely, model-based reasoning, fostered by, learner construction of qualitative and quantitative models of the content, phenomena that are studying using technology-based modeling tools