Instructional Design (ID) Phoebe Shen

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Instructional Design (ID) Phoebe Shen by Mind Map: Instructional Design (ID)    Phoebe Shen

1. ID models

1.1. ADDIE

1.1.1. Analyze 1. Define the problems The cause of the problems 2. The audiences learner's analysis 3. task analysis Identify Constraints Existing knowledge 4. Develop learning objectives what kind of support learners need? learning objectives What are the learning outcomes? task analysis

1.1.2. Design Instructional theory adopted Gagne's nine events of instruction information-processing model of learning 5 First Principles of Instruction Pebble-in-the-Pond model Suggest learning activities activities relating to 5 principles, involve in blended learning approach User-interface and content Detailed storyboards and prototypes what is a storyboard and why do we need one? How to create a storyboard? useful tips online storyboard tool resources

1.1.3. Develop Generate the course documents and materials technology-based learning system Learning guides Checklists Questionnaires Web page Trainer’s notes Presentation plans Assignment sheets

1.1.4. Implement Actual delivery of the instruction Prepare teachers and students

1.1.5. Evaluate Determine evaluation criteria 4 levels evaluation of outcome Select evaluation tools Conduct evaluation

1.2. rapid model

1.2.1. Preparation discuss the learning goals and benefit raise the learners' curiosity remove any barriers that might hamper learning

1.2.2. Presentation show examples of real-world phenomenon give interactive presentations appeal to all learning styles use discovery activities use problem-solving exercises show examples of real-world phenomenon give interactive presentations appeal to all learning styles use discovery activities use problem-solving exercises

1.2.3. Practice present hands-on trial activities, provide feedback, promote reflection, and then retrial for perfect practice use learning games promote individual reflection and articulation use plenty of skill building practice exercises

1.2.4. Performance

1.3. Dick and Carey Model

1.3.1. Identify Instructional Goal(s): goal statement describes a skill, knowledge or attitude(SKA) that a learner will be expected to acquire

1.3.2. Conduct Instructional Analysis: Identify what a learner must recall and identify what learner must be able to do to perform particular task

1.3.3. Analyze Learners and Contexts: Identify general characteristics of the target audience including prior skills, prior experience, and basic demographics; identify characteristics directly related to the skill to be taught; and perform analysis of the performance and learning settings.

1.3.4. Write Performance Objectives: Objectives consists of a description of the behavior, the condition and criteria. The component of an objective that describes the criteria that will be used to judge the learner's performance.

1.3.5. Develop Assessment Instruments: Purpose of entry behavior testing, purpose of pretesting, purpose of posttesting, purpose of practice items/practice problems

1.3.6. Develop Instructional Strategy: Pre-instructional activities, content presentation, Learner participation, assessment

1.3.7. Develop and Select Instructional Materials

1.3.8. Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation of Instruction: Designer try to identify areas of the instructional materials that are in need of improvement.

1.3.9. Revise Instruction: To identify poor test items and to identify poor instruction

1.3.10. Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation

1.4. Kemp's instructional design model

1.4.1. Identify instructional problems, and specify goals for designing an instructional program.

1.4.2. Examine learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning.

1.4.3. Identify subject content, and analyze task components related to stated goals and purposes.

1.4.4. State instructional objectives for the learner.

1.4.5. Sequence content within each instructional unit for logical learning.

1.4.6. Design instructional strategies so that each learner can master the objectives.

1.4.7. Plan the instructional message and delivery.

1.4.8. Develop evaluation instruments to assess objectives.

1.4.9. Select resources to support instruction and learning activities.

2. instructional designer

2.1. job titles

2.1.1. video:what is instructional designer

2.1.2. instructional technologist

2.1.3. e-learning specialist

2.1.4. learning engineer

2.2. relevant industries

2.2.1. army

2.2.2. hospital

2.2.3. university

2.2.4. bank

2.2.5. school

2.2.6. publisher

2.2.7. hospital

2.3. instructional materials

2.3.1. mobile-learning

2.3.2. e-learning

2.3.3. educational e-book

2.3.4. multimedia in learning

2.3.5. computer-based learning

2.3.6. educational game device

2.3.7. blended learning

2.3.8. teaching & learning with technology

2.4. purpose of instructional design

2.4.1. systematic

2.4.2. interdependant

2.4.3. dynamic

2.4.4. video: what is instructional design

2.5. history of ID

2.5.1. h

3. what are the problems? / what educational problem are we trying to fix?

4. How does learning occur?

4.1. learning theories

4.1.1. behavourism What is behaviourism?

4.1.2. cognitivism What is cognitivism?

4.1.3. constructivism What is constructivism?

4.2. forgetting curve

4.2.1. scientific fact 50% training content is forgotten within 1hr 70% training content is forgotten within 24hrs 90% training content is forgotten within 1 week the forgetting curve image

4.2.2. cope with the forgetting curve reset learners' forgetting curve review/assess --> apply the new knowledge after training memory boosters 1. 2+2+2

4.3. Adult learning

4.3.1. motivation to learn to cope with specific life-chafing events willing to engage in prior learning experience the knowledge/skills can be applied to increase/maintain the sense of esteem/pleasure

4.3.2. curriculum design should take these into accounts single theory/concept that can be heavily applied to certain problems new information needs to be integrate with the old one in order to use conflicts between the prior knowledge/belief and the new information would be digested slowly fast-paced, complex & unusual task need to be illustrated with the learning adults will be more accurate to compensate for being slower in learning may take errors personally, affect self-esteem designers should make sure whether the concepts would conflict with learners programs need to be designed to accept people who have different values

4.3.3. work in classroom physically and psychologically comfortable avoid long lectures, interminable sitting, no practice opportunities things that might affect in-class experience bad experience in traditional education feelings of authority preoccupation manage learner's expectation learners should clarify & articulate the expectations before getting into content respect is highly valued in classroom activity draw out students' relevant knowledge instructors should work on open-ended questions new knowledge must integrate with the old require students' actively participation in the learning experience require transition time and effort on application of the knowledge and skills control adult learners when ego affects learners to challenge themselves protect minorities' opinion make connections between various opinions make sure disagreements can be smoothly transmitted to the potential of solutions learning & teaching approach/theories function better as resource skill-training task draw much from behavioural approach protect minorities' opinion

5. How do we actually go about sequencing an instruction with a focus on attaining the learning outcomes?

6. how do we evaluate the outcome of learning / have we fixed the initial problem?

7. How do we design to fix the problem?