Student Assessments

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Student Assessments by Mind Map: Student Assessments

1. High-Stakes

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. A high-stakes assessment is one that has significant consequences to the test-taker, whether this be gaining a high-school diploma, being placed in a particular class, or perhaps being accepted to particular colleges.

1.2. Purpose

1.2.1. The purpose of high-stakes testing is to hold teachers/schools/states accountable for student learning

1.3. Advantage

1.3.1. Because tests increase accountability, they can motivate students

1.3.2. Information regarding student's test scores can give important information on how to guide further instruction and what areas need improvement

1.3.3. For some educators, the amount of accountability (teachers being held responsible for the success of their students on high-stakes test), the pressure could result in more motivation to ensure the students are learning content effectively (Supovitz 2015).

1.4. Disadvantage

1.4.1. Classroom instruction can center around test-preparation, which makes it difficult to spend time gaining a deeper understanding of content. In other words, the learning of content becomes more superficial (Supovitz 2015)

1.5. Example

1.5.1. ESL students in my classes take a placement test to determine what level of ELA classes they'll be in

1.6. OF learning; This assessment evaluates the student's knowledge of a topic and occurs after the learning process. Student's achievement and scores are ranked and compared to certain standards.

2. Diagnostic

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. A diagnostic assessment, also known as a "pre-assessment," is given to students as they enter a new classroom or begin learning a new concept. It tests their knowledge prior to learning.

2.2. Purpose

2.2.1. Diagnostic assessments convey a student's readiness level and serve as a baseline for which to assess progress.

2.3. Advantage

2.3.1. Reveals students' strengths and weaknesses, thus helping the teacher understand how to effectively scaffold lessons. Diagnostic assessments also allow the teacher to use this information as a baseline to measure student's progress by the end of the unit/school year

2.4. Disadvantage

2.4.1. Students could feel overwhelmed if they have a limited knowledge of the content they are being tested on. After all, this is a test done BEFORE teaching content. However, this could be anxiety-inducing and discouraging to students who enter the classroom at a lower readiness level.

2.5. Example

2.5.1. Summative assessment of the previous unit

2.5.2. Break apart the standard you plan to teach so that you have several objectives. Create a short answer or fill in the blank test that addresses each of these objectives and give it to students at the start of the unit.

2.5.3. A more specific example directly related to my current job as an ESL teacher: whenever I meet a new student for tutoring private lessons, I always do a diagnostic assessment to see where they're at. I will ask them to write all uppercase letters in the alphabet, then all lowercase letters, identify the colors of various objects, draw various shapes, count to 20 verbally, and then write the numbers 1-20. This particular diagnostic assessment is tailored to very young ELL students between ages of 4-7. A similar assessment for older students would include basic conversational skills.

2.6. OF learning: this type of assessment evaluates what students have learned prior to the beginning of the current unit/school year

3. Formative

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. Formative assessments are assessments that allow the teacher to check the students' understanding of content as they learn. This can be done through a variety of ways such as pair work, brainstorming activities, individual meetings with the students, etc.

3.2. Purpose

3.2.1. To support learning while the student is going through the learning process, to provide feedback, and to check students' understanding of content

3.3. Advantage

3.3.1. These assessments are often not graded, which puts students at ease and minimizes anxiety. This results in instrinsic motivation (Sasser 2015).

3.3.2. Allows teacher to gain a sense of how well students understand the material WHILE they are learning, as oppose to after the lesson is over. This allows the teacher to tailor the assignments and lessons as she sees fit. In this sense, it is a more flexible way of assessing student knowledge (Sasser 2015).

3.3.3. Increases students' metacognitive awareness

3.3.4. Teacher provides students with descriptive feedback

3.4. Disadvantage

3.4.1. Formative assessments can be time-consuming in school settings like my own, in which I have to follow a rigid curriculum. It can also be difficult for large classes or teachers that teach several classes a day, as it could be hard to give detailed and thorough feedback to each student, or even to observe each student sufficiently.

3.5. Example

3.5.1. Flipped Classroom

3.5.2. Differentiated Instruction/Formative Assessments

3.5.3. Postcard activity: to combine elements of social studies/history/ELA, have students write a postcard to a friend from the point of view of a person living in a particular time and location in history (Wees 2012)

3.5.4. Exit Cards: students answer a short quiz on the day's lesson as they leave class. For my specific subject (ELA) and grade level (grades 1-6), these quizzes will include review of figurative language, vocabulary, and literary devices (Wees 2012).

3.6. FOR Learning: Formative assessments are assessments for learning as they happen throughout the learning process. Student's are not tested on formative assessments, the purpose of the assessments it to learn.

4. Summative

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. A final assessment done post-learning in order to assess the student's understanding of content

4.2. Purpose

4.2.1. To provide a summary and evaluation of student learning

4.3. Advantage

4.3.1. Measures student learning in relation to particular standards

4.3.2. Increases accountability in students

4.3.3. Helps evaluate the effectiveness of teaching styles, school programs, student placement, and alignment of curriculum (Ehringhaus & Garrison 2010).

4.4. Disadvantage

4.4.1. Some students can get testing anxiety, or be unable to focus for long periods of time due to external factors or learning disabilities (ADD/ADHD).

4.4.2. Sometimes summative assessments can be given in the form of a multiple choice test, which doesn't test the student's comprehension of content as well as short essay questions.

4.5. Example

4.5.1. Unit test: multiple choice/short essay/long essay/short answer/fill in the blanks

4.5.2. Final project such as a narrative, poster presentation, creation and production of material such as a video or artwork

4.6. OF learning: this kind of assessment tests the students and scores their work

5. Performance Based

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. Performance-Based assessments evaluate the extent to which students can apply the knowledge they've learned in class to real-world situations (Edutopia 2015).

5.2. Purpose

5.2.1. To allow students to demonstrate their knowledge of content

5.3. Advantage

5.3.1. Performance-based assessments are more engaging and motivating for students because they take content learned in class, and show students how these concepts can be applied in relevant situations outside the classroom (Edutopia 2015)

5.3.2. Creates a deeper understanding of content

5.3.3. Incorporates 21st century skills such as collaboration, critical thinking, use of technology

5.3.4. Encourages students to use higher-order thinking skills. For example, they'll have to gauge the reliability of various resources and draw conclusions from information (Edutopia 2015).

5.4. Disadvantage

5.4.1. The only disadvantage I can think of is that this kind of assessment is time-consuming, and some teachers just might not have room in their curriculum for something like this. Personally, I would not be able to incorporate this kind of assessment into my curriculum due to a rigid and extensive workbook-based curriculum that I have to get through each month.

5.5. Example

5.5.1. PBL Projects: In a particular project that incorporates elements of ELA and history, I would have my students interview a family member about their experience growing up in a different era. The students will research the history related to this particular setting and time period and come up with a narrative accompanied by primary sources and media.

5.6. FOR learning: These assessment occur throughout the learning process. Although they result in a final product, they are time-consuming projects and can incorporate peer editing/teacher feedback/collaboration/etc.

6. Portfolio

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. A portfolio assessment is a way of assessing students through a final product created from several student-made artifacts (Fernsten 2009).

6.2. Purpose

6.2.1. The purpose of a portfolio assessment is to individualize learning and encourage students to take several creations and organize them into a final product.

6.3. Advantage

6.3.1. Students can learn important organizational skills

6.3.2. Learning is more personalized and differentiated. There are many aspects that go into a portfolio, making the project appealing to different types of learners (Fernsten 2009).

6.3.3. Students can present the final product.

6.3.4. Students can practice time-management by setting short term goals and checklists (Fernsten 2009).

6.4. Disadvantage

6.4.1. Like many other assessments, this assessment is time consuming. It requires that the teacher have space in his/her curriculum for something like this, and also requires that the school has the necessary resources.

6.5. Example

6.5.1. An example of a portfolio assessment in an ELA subject could be the collection of writings with a specific theme. For example, one theme could be "social justice." The students could include in their portfolios artifacts like: narratives, poetry, explanatory essays, photographs, and interviews.

6.5.2. A portfolio assessment can also be a portfolio of one specific kind of work. For example, in an ELA classroom, students could make a collection of narrative essays. They can compare different essays written at different times in the school year to track their growth and progress.

6.6. FOR learning: This is an assessment that is done over a period of time, thus allowing for several opportunities to learn and grow. Rather than a final assessment of learning, the assessment occurs throughout the learning process.

7. Authentic

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. Authentic assessments are assessments which rely not on multiple choice or passive test-taking, but rather require students to develop and demonstrate a deeper-level understanding of content, and how to apply this content into a real world situation. They are similar to a performance-based assessment.

7.2. Purpose

7.2.1. The purpose of authentic assessments is to assess students' learning in real world contexts.

7.3. Advantage

7.3.1. Encourages students to be active citizens in the community, and to apply information learned in school to come up with solutions to real-world problems

7.4. Disadvantage

7.4.1. As stated in the disadvantage for performance-based assessments, these activities are time consuming and difficult to incorporate into the curriculum if the teacher has to follow strict and rigorous textbook-based schedules.

7.5. Example

7.5.1. Writing an argumentative or persuasive essay

7.5.2. Reading a piece of literature, then writing a report about it

7.6. FOR learning: These assessments occur throughout the learning process.

8. Peer Assessment

8.1. Definition

8.1.1. Peer assessments are assessments in which students grade and give feedback on other students' work based on standards set by the teacher.

8.2. Purpose

8.2.1. The purpose of peer assessments is to give and gain descriptive feedback and for students to better understand their own work.

8.3. Advantage

8.3.1. Allows students to collaborate with one another, thus creating a sense of community in the classroom

8.3.2. Provides students with a better understanding of their own work based on the thorough review of a peer's work. The students can share ideas as well; for example, they can perhaps notice something that a peer does that they themselves can implement to improve their work.

8.4. Disadvantage

8.4.1. Depending on social ties among students, some students might feel uncomfortable providing feedback on the work of others. They might grade a student's work too easily for fear of causing conflict.

8.5. Example

8.5.1. As one of the stages of writing an essay/narrative, the students can peer-edit each others' rough drafts.

8.5.2. Students can grade each other formative assessments such as quizzes

8.5.3. As part of a students' grade on a specific project, the student must also write a short reflection about a classmate's project (including thoughts, feedback, praise, comparisons and contrasts among their own work)

8.6. FOR learning: After students peer review, they go back to their work and make improvements. Therefore, it is not a "final" product at the end of learning, but rather an assessment that occurs during the learning process.

9. Self Assessment

9.1. Definition

9.1.1. Self assessments are assessments in which students evaluate and improve their own work

9.2. Purpose

9.2.1. The purpose of self assessments is for students to become familiar with their strengths and weaknesses, track their progress, and become self-directed learners.

9.3. Advantage

9.3.1. Allows students to reflect on progress and improvement

9.3.2. Allows students to learn their own particular learning style

9.3.3. Encourages students to be self-directed autonomous learners (Desautel 2014)

9.3.4. Allows students to set and meet goals

9.4. Disadvantage

9.4.1. If students are simply engaging in self-assessment and not peer-assessment, they could be missing out on gaining a different perspective on their work.

9.5. Example

9.5.1. Editing a rough draft in order to create a final product

9.5.2. Writing reflection papers at the end of a unit or project

9.5.3. At the beginning of a unit, students can make a short list of goals, sort of like a "Know, Want to Know, Learned" chart. They can outline short term goals and specific improvements they want to make. The students can regularly add to this list throughout the school year, and then look back at it to assess their progress

9.6. FOR learning: In this assessment, students are in the process of learning as they are reviewing their own work and reflecting on their own progress.

10. References

10.1. Desautel, L. (2014) Self-Assessment Inspires Learning. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/blog/self-assessment-inspires-learning-lori-desautels Fernsten, L. (2009). Portfolio Assessments. Retrieved from: http://www.education.com/reference/article/portfolio-assessment/ Edutopia (2015) Performance-Based Assessment: Engaging Students in Chemistry. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/practice/performance-based-assessment-engaging-students-chemistry Ehringhaus, M., Garrison C. (2010) Formative and Summative Assessments in the Classroom. Retrieved from: http://schools.nyc.gov/NR/rdonlyres/33148188-6FB5-4593-A8DF-8EAB8CA002AA/0/2010_11_Formative_Summative_Assessment.pdf Sasser, N. (2015) What Are the Advantages and Disadvantages of Formative Assessment? Retrieved from: http://everydaylife.globalpost.com/advantages-disadvantages-formative-assessment-28407.html Supovitz, K. (2015). Is High-Stakes Testing Working? Retrieved from: https://www.gse.upenn.edu/review/feature/supovitz Wees, D. (2012). 56 Examples of Formative Assessments. Retrieved from: http://www.edutopia.org/groups/assessment/250941