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Assessments by Mind Map: Assessments

1. Formative

1.1. Takes place during the learning process, formal or informal.

1.2. Provides feedback to give instructors insight into the learning level of their students

1.3. Advantages: allow teachers to monitor student achievement, is less anxiety inducing

1.4. Disadvantages: time consuming

1.5. FOR learning

1.6. Examples: graphic organizers, check sticks, collaborative learning activities, group discussion


2. Summative

2.1. Evaluation at the end of a learning period which is generally more formal

2.2. Provides an evaluation on how well a student has learned the required material

2.3. Advantages: strong student motivator

2.4. Disadvantages: Stress inducing, may result in teachers "teaching to the test" and drilling instead of critical and insightful studying and learning

2.5. OF learning

2.6. Examples: Tests, essays, oral exam, presentation


3. High Stakes

3.1. Any assessment used to make important decisions about a student, a school, district, etc*

3.2. To make decisions regarding future education, school performance, and areas of strength or weakness within a district, city, state, or country

3.3. Advantages: gives administrators data to construct judgements on school or student performance

3.4. Disadvantages: data may not be accurate, takes time away from learning curriculum, encourages "teaching to the test"

3.5. Examples: SAT, MAP tests, any other form of standardized testing

3.6. *

4. Portfolio

4.1. Document student learning through a series of student produced artifacts

4.2. Create a more accurate assessment of what a student "can do", not only what they "know". Especially useful for music, art, or technological forms

4.3. Advantages: more individualized, show students capacity to create demonstrating their skills, promote real feedback between teacher and student

4.4. Disadvantages: time consuming, labor intensive

4.5. FOR learning

4.6. Examples: writing portfolio, photography portfolio, written songs portfolio


5. Authentic

5.1. Assessment tasks that resemble real world tasks*

5.2. Help students to use and apply information gathered

5.3. Advantages: authentic application of knowledge and skills, requires synthesis of information, rather than simply reciting information, makes cheating less of a temptation

5.4. Disadvantages: not easily measurable

5.5. OF learning

5.6. Examples: journal responses, identifying theme, writing a newspaper article

5.7. *

6. Diagnostic

6.1. Gathering and analyzing student feedback. Strong emphasis on data

6.2. Understand where students are and know how to help them

6.3. Advantages: informs the learning process

6.4. Disadvantages: time consuming, should not always be used for grades

6.5. FOR learning

6.6. Examples: journals, conferences, making posters


7. Performance-based

7.1. Assessment resulting in a project, or demonstrating skills through performance

7.2. Shows student ability to apply and synthesize information

7.3. Advantages: deeper understanding of content, higher order of thinking skills

7.4. Disadvantages: time consuming, resources can be expensive

7.5. OF learning

7.6. Examples: research projects, debates, graphs


8. Self-assessment

8.1. Student must evaluate their own work using predetermined criteria

8.2. Enables students to develop skills to judge their own work accurately and efficiently

8.3. Advantages: greater understanding and awareness of themselves as a learner

8.4. Disadvantages: time consuming, grades may not be reliable due to inaccurate inflating or deflating by student

8.5. FOR learning

8.6. Examples: checking against success criteria



9. Peer-assessment

9.1. Students assess each others work using predetermined criteria

9.2. Require students to think critically of their peers work, readies them to evaluate their own work and work in the workplace

9.3. Advantages: encourages student involvement and responsibility, required to take ownership of group work, development of judgement skills,

9.4. Disadvantages: students have a tendency to be biased towards certain members of the group depending on friendships, personal feelings and opinions.

9.5. FOR learning

9.6. Examples: checking against success criteria, traffic light system, student grade averages, descriptive feedback