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1.1.1. Definition and purpose Diagnostic assessment involves the gathering and careful evaluation of detailed data using students’ knowledge and skills in a given learning area. The data assist teachers to plan for appropriate pedagogy and targeted learning to more effectively scaffold the learning needs of their students.

1.1.2. Rationale Diagnostic assessment is used ‘for learning’ where taking action to adjust teaching plays a significant role in improving learning outcomes for all students. Basically Diagnostic assessment looks backwards as to prior knowledge and level of students and then it help to plan the future lessons.

1.1.3. Advantages Main advantage of diagnostic assessment is for the teacher to know what is the knowledge level of the students and how to plan a lesson around that knowledge so that no students is either left behind or is bored in the class. -Establishes a baseline for the class -Allows for better differentiation plans for the students -Provides a frame of reference for later assessments

1.1.4. Disadvantages I dont feel there can be any major disadvantages of this assessment apart from the human error and thus wrong inference drawn about a strudent's abilities. this would be rectified once the teaching starts.

1.1.5. Example Self assessment of student can be diagnostic assessment , which maps out studetns future learning needs. Examples of diagnostic assessments include but are not limited to: Graphic organizers Journal Entries KWLs Pre-tests


1.2.1. Definition Formative assessment refers to a wide variety of methods that teachers use to conduct in-process evaluations of student comprehension, learning needs, and academic progress during a lesson, unit, or course.

1.2.2. Advantages 1. It provides feedback to the student on how they’re performing (which will hopefully motivate them). 2. It provides feedback to the trainer on those areas where they might need to focus more attention on to reinforce particular learning points.

1.2.3. Examples Examples of formative assessments include but are not limited to: Conferences Observations Question and Answer Sessions First Drafts / Quizzes Journals

1.2.4. Rationale It is an assessment for learning Since this kind of assessments determine whether the students are going through active learning or not. this also helps in the teacher modifying lessons if she notices through the assessment that the student is not catching up with the lesson.

1.2.5. Purpose the main purpose of this assessment is for the teacher to know what the students is understanding and what is going beyond and thus modify lessons accordingly to make sure each and every student understands the lesson.

1.2.6. Disadvantages I feel formative assessment is the most crucial of all assessments because this makes sure that students are learning. Many teachers feel it wastes a lot of time , but i again feel this is one assessment that helps in active learning in a class room.

1.3. SELF

1.3.1. I feel self assessment is very important at all stages of learning. Thus I have put it into both assessment for learning and assessment of learning.Being aware of ones strengths and weaknesses is crucial for any kind of success.



2.1.1. Definition Summative assessments are used to evaluate student learning, skill acquisition, and academic achievement at the conclusion of a defined instructional period—typically at the end of a project, unit, course, semester, program, or school year.

2.1.2. Rationale Summative assessments are cumulative evaluations used to measure student growth after instruction and are generally given at the end of a course in order to determine whether long term learning goals have been met. Thus by definition, they are assessments of learning. they assess a student as to what all he or she has learnt in the lesson given to him.

2.1.3. Advantages 1. Its existence (learners will need to be aware of it from the start) provides motivation and helps create an appropriate learning environment. 2. Positive results give the trainees a boost in confidence and can act as a springboard into subsequent behaviour change back in the workplace. 3. Trainers can identify those areas where results are consistently lower and can then consider alternative delivery methods – helping to develop the training for future events. 4.The results provide a measurable way of determining the success of the training programme, directly comparable from one intake to the next.

2.1.4. Disadvantages 1.After summative assessment, low-achieving pupils had lower self-esteem than higher-achievers, whereas there had been no correlation between self-esteem and achievement before 2. Repeated practice tests reinforce low self-esteem of low achievers 3.When results of summative assessment are presented as primarily relating to individual pupils the negative effect on low-achievers is more pronounced than when the results are for evaluation of school or authority standards. 4.Secondary age low-achievers may deliberately underperform in summative assessments because they are failing anyway 5.Summative assessments can be limiting for the most able 6.“Big bang” tests cause anxiety in pupils, especially girls and widen the gap between high and low achievers’ motivation 7. Summative assessment promotes “extrinsic” motivation, in which pupils respond to the promise of some kind of reward rather than “intrinsic” motivation in which they perform because they are interested and want to do the work

2.1.5. Strategies Performance Task: students are asked to complete a task that will test a specific set of skills and/or abilities and determine what the students knows and are capable of doing. A rubric, checklist, or other form of scoring guide should accompany this type of assessment. Written Product: students are asked to write an original selection. There are many written forms that teachers can use to get students to write. In addition, students may be asked to write about a previous activity such as a field trip or guest speaker. Students may also be asked to create a piece of persuasive writing or a reflection about their learning experience. A rubric, checklist, or other form of scoring guide should accompany this type of assessment Written Product: students are asked to write an original selection. There are many written forms that teachers can use to get students to write. In addition, students may be asked to write about a previous activity such as a field trip or guest speaker. Students may also be asked to create a piece of persuasive writing or a reflection about their learning experience. A rubric, checklist, or other form of scoring guide should accompany this type of assessment Test: the students are asked to write a test at the end of a section, chapter, unit, theme, etc. to demonstrate what they know. Standardized Test: students are asked to write a test that is standardized in terms of content of the test and conditions under which the test is written. In Canada, there are provincial standardized tests administered at many grade levels, such as Grade 3, 6, 9, 12.

2.1.6. Purpose The aim of summative assessment is to prove that learning has occurred.



2.2.1. Definition and Purpose A high-stakes test is any test used to make important decisions about students, educators, schools, or districts, most commonly for the purpose of accountability—i.e., the attempt by federal, state, or local government agencies and school administrators to ensure that students are enrolled in effective schools and being taught by effective teachers.

2.2.2. Rationale High stake assessment is an assessment of learning since 1. It is done after the teaching/ learning is finished 2. It is done to check how much the student has learnt,

2.2.3. Advantages 1. Helps Teachers Learn More About Student Needs. 2. The Testing Data Is Readily Available. 3. Improved Test Taking Abilities.

2.2.4. Disadvantages 1. Some Subjects Are Not Properly Emphasized. 2. Creativity Is Stifled. 3. Increasing Pressure Does Not Always Work.

2.2.5. Strategy 1. Provide practice tests. 2. Emphasize not giving up. 3. Give timed tests. 4. Teach students test-taking strategies. P- Prepare to succeed-put your name and PIRATES on the test. Make affirmations. I- Inspect the instructions. R- Read, remember, reduce A- Answer or abandon T- Turn back E- Estimate. Avoid absolutes, choose the longest or most detailed choice, and eliminate similar choices. S- Survey. 5. Prepare students to deal with test anxiety. 6. Make test settings as pleasant as possible. 7. Involve students in accommodation discussions in the individualized education program. 8. Plan a special activity after tests are over.

2.2.6. Example SAT Exams


2.3.1. Definition Portfolio assessment is an evaluation tool used to document student learning through a series of student-developed artifacts. Considered a form of authentic assessment, it offers an alternative or an addition to traditional methods of grading and high stakes exams.

2.3.2. Types PORTFLIO Definition and Purpose Rationale Advantages Disadvantage Example SELF ASSESSMENT Definition Rationale Advantages Disadvantages Strategies Pupose Example Of Self Assessment PEER Definition Rationale Advantages Disadvantages PERFORMANCE BASED Definition Rationale Advantages Disadvantages Strategy Example

2.3.3. Purpose Authentic Assessments Capture Constructive Nature of Learning Authentic Assessments Integrate Teaching, Learning and Assessment Authentic Assessments Provide Multiple Paths to Demonstration

3. This is all general knowledge about assessments. I could not put in examples of assessments in Ghana ( West Africa) Because here the only kind of assessment that happens is the standardized test. There are two International schools in the main city Accra which make use of other kinds of assessments. But then again they are American schools. Ghana Local schools are still the Old thinkers wherein the only kind of assessment is the Standardized test after each semester.