14 Categories of Disabilities

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14 Categories of Disabilities by Mind Map: 14 Categories of Disabilities

1. Hearing Impairment

1.1. Alternative curriculum

1.2. Provide extra practice

1.3. Educational interpreter

1.4. Enhance speech-reading conditions (avoid hands in front of face, mustaches well-trimmed, no gum chewing)

1.5. Reduce visual distractions

1.6. Reduce auditory distractions (background noise)

1.7. Obtain student’s attention prior to speaking

1.8. Specialized seating arrangements

1.9. Personal hearing device

2. Developmental delay

2.1. Speech and Language therapy that focuses on expressive and receptive language expansion

2.2. Teach clear speech strategies

2.3. Use activities that are of the child’s interest

2.4. Break down tasks into smaller steps

2.5. Use visual aids

2.6. Give students blocks, clay, paper, pencils, crayons, safety scissors, play dough, and manipulatives to use

2.7. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Zosc8dEBf8

3. Emotional Disturbance

3.1. Disorders

3.1.1. psychotic disorders

3.1.2. obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

3.1.3. eating disorders

3.1.4. conduct disorders

3.1.5. bipolar disorder (sometimes called manic-depression)

3.1.6. anxiety disorders

3.2. Interventions and Assistive Technology

3.2.1. Extend the amount of time that a student is given to complete a particular task.

3.2.2. Break down assignments into smaller ones

3.2.3. Follow low-interest activities with high interest activities so that students get breaks from difficult or less interesting activities from time to time

3.2.4. Plan short review lessons or readiness activities to help orient the student to a particular learning task

3.2.5. Set clear expectations

3.2.6. Explicitly and frequently teach social rules and skills

3.2.7. Model appropriate responses to social situations

3.2.8. Use self-monitoring checklists that the student can use to check off activities as completed

3.2.9. Teach student to accurately label his / her own emotions

3.2.10. Teach student to accurately label the emotional status of others (based on facial cues, verbal cues, etc.)

3.2.11. Use assistive technology such as The Talklight and a Behavior Chart

4. Traumatic Brain Injury

4.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BAeevSg7vIw

4.2. Assistive Technology such as specialized keyboards and magnified screens, customized chairs, electronic planners and cellphones

4.3. Use verbal praise and encouragement frequently

4.4. Provide immediate feedback and error correction when necessary—feedback should be positive and systematic

4.5. Provide opportunities for student response and practice at an appropriate pace

4.6. Break tasks into small steps and demonstrate each step

4.7. Give clearly stated task directions (limit the number of steps) and ask the student to repeat or paraphrase the directions to ensure understanding

4.8. Provide a simple rationale to help the student understand the relevance of the skill

4.9. Select a meaningful goal or skill the student will need to learn and present it at the level of the student

5. Visual Impairment

5.1. Braille

5.2. Preferential seating

5.3. Handouts containing pertinent information

5.4. Increase visual clarity

5.5. Video Magnifiers

5.6. Braillewriter

5.7. Audio books

6. Speech and Language Impairment

6.1. Have easy and good interactive communication in classroom

6.2. Provide a quiet spot for the student to work if possible

6.3. Be patient when student is speaking, since rushing may result in frustration

6.4. Speech and Language therapy should be given

6.5. Use of pacing boards to pace sentences

6.6. Use of AAC

6.7. Use of assistive technology such as Ipads

7. Intellectual Disability

7.1. Description: Significant subaverage general intelligence.

7.2. Intervention/Modifications: Quiet Work Space, Functional Activities, Repetition, Hands-on Learning, etc.

7.3. Assistive Technology: Electronic Wheelchair, Word Processor, Computer

8. Deafness

8.1. Use of amplification devices

8.2. Use of Visuals

8.3. Cochlear implants

8.4. Lip Reading

8.5. Sign Language

8.6. Visual or Vibrating Alerting Devices

8.7. Closed captioning

9. Deaf-Blindness

9.1. Tactile learning strategies (e.g. touch cues, hang-over-hand guidance, hand-under-hand guidance)

9.2. Intervention must be individualized

9.3. Use Sign Language or Braille

9.4. Assistive technology such as Ipads and Braille Note

9.5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GkthqXO9IQM

10. Other Health Impairment

10.1. Sub Categories

10.1.1. • ADD and AH/HD

10.1.2. Diabetes

10.1.3. Epilepsy

10.1.4. Heart conditions

10.1.5. Hemophilia

10.1.6. Lead poisoning

10.1.7. Leukemia

10.1.8. Nephritis

10.1.9. Rheumatic fever

10.1.10. Sickle cell anemia

10.1.11. Tourette syndrome

10.2. Teach physical independence, including mastery of daily living skills

10.3. Teach communication skills

10.4. Post rules, schedules, and assignments

10.5. Teach tools and strategies for calming down

10.6. Teach self-monitoring skills

11. Orthopedic Impairment

11.1. Assistive Technology

11.1.1. speech recognition software

11.1.2. screen reading software

11.1.3. augmentative and alternative communication devices (such as communication boards)

11.1.4. academic software packages for students with disabilities

11.2. Awareness of medical condition and its affect on the student (such as getting tired quickly)

11.3. Securing suitable augmentative communication and other assistive devices

11.4. Instruction focused on development of gross and fine motor skills

11.5. Special seating arrangements to develop useful posture and movements

12. Autism

12.1. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) Devices

12.2. such as Proloquo2go to assist in communication

12.3. Use a social thinking curriculum to create social awareness and offer strategies for social situations such as working in groups and maintaining eye contact

12.4. Behavior mapping charts assist with analyzing expected and unexpected behaviors

12.5. Group activities/games that encourage the use of wh-questions such as who and what as well as turn taking (e.g. who’s turn is it? What is it?)

12.6. Role-playing

13. Multiple Disabilities

13.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yv8IqR_kuEI

13.2. Make sure that everything is relevant to the child you are working with

13.3. Model and practice expected behavior

13.4. Identify clear goals/expectations

13.5. Teach sharing and turn taking

13.6. Use of Augmentative and Alternative Communication such as tangible and tactile symbol systems, choice boards, object prompts and symbols, and physical modeling and prompting

13.7. Anna's Story

13.7.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yv8IqR_kuEI

13.8. Use of assistive technology such as Ipads

14. Specific Learning Disability

14.1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lTMLzXzgB_s

14.2. Use assistive technology like tape recorders, reading machines, voice recognition systems

14.3. Teach organizational skills, study skills, and learning strategies

14.4. Letting the student with writing difficulties use a computer with specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks, or recognizes speech

14.5. Letting the student with listening difficulties borrow notes from a classmate or use a tape recorder

14.6. Letting the student with reading problems use instructional materials that are accessible to those with print disabilities

14.7. Giving the student more time to finish schoolwork or take tests

14.8. Breaking tasks into smaller steps, and giving directions verbally and in writing

14.9. Speech or language therapy or physical or occupational therapy should be given

14.10. Goals and expectations should be set appropriately