Photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis by Mind Map: Photosynthesis

1. Leaf Structures & Function

1.1. Waxy Cuticle

1.1.1. Waterproof outer layer

1.2. Epidermis

1.2.1. Protective outer layer

1.3. Xylem

1.3.1. Transports water

1.4. Phloem

1.4.1. Transports glucose (sugar)

1.5. Palisade Mesophyll

1.5.1. Contains lots of chloroplasts for photosynthesis

1.6. Spongy Mesphyll

1.6.1. Loosely arranged for gas exchange (contains chloroplasts)

1.7. Moist Air Space

1.7.1. Moist to allow gasses to dissolve

1.8. Stomata

1.8.1. Allows carbon dioxide in and oxygen out of the leaf

1.9. Guard Cells

1.9.1. Open and close the stomata

2. Stages of Photosythesis

2.1. Photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplast of the leaf

2.2. The First Stage: Light Dependant Stage

2.2.1. Occurs in the grana of the chloroplast

2.2.2. Raw materials: Water (from soil via roots)

2.2.3. Requires chlorophyll

2.2.4. Requires light

2.2.4.1. The light energy is converted into chemical energy which is stored as ATP

2.2.4.2. The light energy is used to split water to produce Hydrogen and Oxygen

2.2.5. Products: Hydrogen, Oxygen & ATP

2.2.5.1. The Oxygen is released into the atmosphere via stroma

2.2.5.2. The Hydrogen and ATP are passed on to the second stage

2.3. The Second Stage: Carbon Fixation

2.3.1. Occurs in the stroma of the chloroplast

2.3.2. Raw materials: Carbon Dioxide (from air via stroma)

2.3.3. Doesn't require chlorophyll

2.3.4. Doesn't require light

2.3.5. Product: Glucose

3. Limiting Factors

3.1. 3 Limiting Factors: Light Intensity, Carbon Dioxide Concentration & Temperature

3.1.1. Light Intensity

3.1.1.1. Light energy is an essential factor needed to split water into Hydrogen & Oxygen

3.1.2. Carbon Dioxide Concentration

3.1.2.1. Carbon Dioxide is a raw material needed to help make Glucose

3.1.3. Temperature

3.1.3.1. Carbon Fixation is controlled by enzymes. Enzymes work too slowly at low temperatures, and become denatured at too high temperatures

4. Photosynthesis and Industry

4.1. Photosynthesis Equation: Carbon Dioxide + Water --light energy-- chlorophyll--> Oxygen + Glucose

4.2. Commercial Growers

4.2.1. Commercial Growers can ensure that plants receive the correct light intensity by using supplementary lighting

4.2.2. Commercial Growers can ensure that plants receive the correct carbon dioxide concentration by using either a carbon dioxide enrichment or paraffin heaters

4.2.3. Commercial Growers can ensure that plants receive the correct temperature by using heaters

4.2.4. By overcoming limiting factors crops are produced earlier and there is a higher yield

5. Plant Transport Systems

5.1. Water

5.1.1. The plant structure that carries Water is the Xylem Vessel(s)

5.1.1.1. Dead

5.1.1.2. The Xylem Vessels are hollow and are supported by the rings/spirals of lignin which makes them good for transporting Water

5.2. Glucose

5.2.1. The plant structure that carries Glucose is the Phloem Vessel(s)

5.2.1.1. Living

5.2.1.2. Composed of sieve tubes, companion cells and sieve plates

5.2.2. The Glucose is made in the leaves, then the Phloem Vessels transport it to all other parts of the plant

5.3. Gas Exchange

5.3.1. The plant structure that allows gases to pass in and out of the plant is the Stomata

5.3.2. The Guard Cells close and open the Stomata

5.3.2.1. When open the Stomata is described as Turgid

5.3.2.2. When closed the Stomata is described as Flaccid

5.3.3. Carbon Dioxide moves INTO the stomata and Oxygen moves OUT of the Stomata

6. Transpiration

6.1. The Transpiration stream is how the water moves

6.2. Transpiration is the loss of water through the leaves of the plant

6.3. Water evaporates through the stomata