Psychology Paper 1

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Psychology Paper 1 by Mind Map: Psychology Paper 1

1. MEMORY

1.1. Short and long term memory

1.1.1. Duration

1.1.1.1. Evaluation

1.1.1.1.1. STM results may be due to displacement

1.1.1.1.2. Testing STM was artificial

1.1.1.2. LTM potentially lasts forever. STM doesn't last very long unless you repeat the items over and over again!

1.1.1.3. Duration of STM

1.1.1.3.1. Lloyd and Margaret Peterson (1959) studied duration. They used 24 students who were tested over 8 trials. on each trial they were given a consonant syllable and a 3 digit number after a retention interval of 3,6,9,12,15,18 seconds they were told to recall. To stop rehearsal the participants were told to count backwards from their 3 digit number. 90% correct over 3seconds 20% correct after 9 secondhand only 2% correct after 18 seconds. STM duration is less than 18 seconds when verbal rehearsal is prevented.

1.1.1.4. Duration of LTM

1.1.1.4.1. Harry Bahrick et al (1975) tested 400 people from 17yrs-74yrs on their memory of classmates. Photo recognition test with 50 photos some did fee recall having to name all of those they could remember from their graduating class. those who had graduate in the last 15 years had a 90% accuracy in identifying faces after 48 years this declined to 70% free recall was 60% accurate after 15 years dropping to 38% after 48 years.

1.1.2. Coding

1.1.2.1. Acoustic and Semantic

1.1.2.1.1. Accoustic - sound Semantic- Meaning

1.1.2.1.2. Baddeley (1966-1966) used word lists to test effects of acoustic and semantically similar words on STM & LTM. Participants had difficulty remembering acoustically similar words in STM but not in LTM however semantically similar words posed little problem in STM but lead to muddles in LTM. STM is seen to be majority coded in acoustic form and LTM in semantic

1.1.2.2. Evaluation

1.1.2.2.1. Badly may not have tested LTM

1.1.2.2.2. LTM may not be Exclusively semantic

1.1.2.2.3. STM may not be exclusively acoustic

1.1.2.3. information that we store has to be converted from the memory to a valid storage type in the brain.

1.1.3. Capacity

1.1.3.1. EVALUTATION

1.1.3.1.1. Individual differences

1.1.3.1.2. Size of the chunk matters

1.1.3.1.3. Capacity may be even more limited

1.1.3.2. Capacity of STM - assessed using a digit span. Jacobs used this technique to assess STM capacity

1.1.3.3. The average digit span found for digits was 9.3 items and 7.3 for letters. It was decided that it is easier to recall digits as there are only 9 of them whereas there are 26 letters

1.1.3.4. George Miller (1956) concluded that the span of immediate memory ia bout 7 items. some people can count seven dots flashed on to a screen but not many more. He also found that people can remember 5 words as well as they can recall 5 letters - we chunk things s we can remember more. THE MAGIC NUMBER IS THERE FOR 7+OR- 2

1.2. Working memory model

1.2.1. Bradley and Hitch (1974) STM not one store

1.2.1.1. Central executive- Direct attention to particular tasks. Where the brains resources are allocated! Resources- 3 slave systems, phonological loop, visual spatial sketch pad and the episodic buffer.

1.2.1.2. Phonological loop-limited capacity, deals with auditory information. Baddeley divide this further in to the phonological store (holds the word you hear) and an auditory process which is ised for the words that are heard or seen, maintenance rehearsal.

1.2.1.3. Visual spatial sketchhpad used when planning a spatial task. Visual and spatial is temporarily stored here. Logos 1995 suggested that VSS can be divided in to visual cache-stores information about visual items and an inner scribe which deals with spatial relationships

1.2.1.4. Episodic buffer- Baddeley 2000 added the episodic buffer model needed a general store. Needed somewhere to hold visual and acoustic information. Extra storage with limited capacity. It integrates information from CE and PL&VSS maintains sense of time sequencing, episodic buffer send info to LTM

1.2.2. Evaluation

1.2.2.1. Strengths

1.2.2.1.1. Dual task performance- reason for WMM. Hitch and Baddeley supported existence of CE. In one study Task 1 occupied CE and Task 2 used articulatory loop or both CE and articulatory loop. Task 1 was slower when task 2 used the CE and AL. This shows dual task performance and supports WMM

1.2.2.1.2. Evidence from brain damaged patients- individuals with brain damage support WMM Shallice and Warrington studies KF- short term forgetting of auditory was greater than loss of visual information. Auditory problems limited to verbal material, letters, digits, not meaningful sounds. Brain damage restricted phonological loop. SC- generally goo learning abilities exception, unable to learn word pairs if presented out loud, damage to phonological loop. Another patient, LH damaged in road accident, better on spatial tasks than visual imager, visual and spatial separate.

1.2.2.2. Limitations

1.2.2.2.1. Central Executive - some concern about CE as very vague. allocates resources and seems to be same as attention. critics feel one CE is wrong and that there are many. Elsinger and Damasio studies EVR who performed well on reasoning tests, suggesting CE was intact but had poor decision making skills. this shows some damage to CE. CE account is invalid it fails to explain anything and is much more complicated that stated

1.2.2.2.2. Evidence from Brain damaged patients - WMM comes from case studies of brain damaged patients. number of problems, process of brain injury may cause a change in behaviour, may also have other difficulties after injury such as paying attention etc causing underperformance.

1.3. The multistore model of memory

1.3.1. Atkinson and Shiffrin 1968

1.3.2. Sensory register where information is held at each of the senses and the corresponding areas of the brain. Capacity is large. They're constantly receiving information but most receives no attention and remains in the sensory register for a brief duration. Duration is milliseconds.

1.3.3. Attention if someones attention is focused on a sensory store date is transferred to short term memory attention is the first step to remembering something

1.3.4. Short-term memory where information is held for immediate tasks. Limited duration information will decay relatively quickly if not rehearsed repeating things to remember them is called maintenance rehearsal which is largely verbal

1.3.5. Maintenance rehearsal Repetition keeps information in short-term memory continued repetition will create a long-term memory Atkinson and Shifrin Said there was a direct relationship between the rehearsal in short-term memory and strength of the long-term memory the more information is rehearsed the better it is remembered

1.3.6. Long-term memory potentially unlimited in duration & capacity if you can't find the memory you either didn't learn to begin with or you simply can't find it!

1.3.7. retrieval

1.3.8. Evaluation

1.3.8.1. Strengths

1.3.8.1.1. Supporting evidence

1.3.8.1.2. Case studies

1.3.8.2. Weaknesses

1.3.8.2.1. MSM too simple

1.3.8.2.2. Long-term memory involves more than maintenance rehearsal.

1.3.8.3. How separate are short-term and long-term memory.

1.3.8.3.1. The multi store model suggest short term memory is before long term memory however Logie 1999 said short-term memory relies on long-term memory and cannot come first. For example to read sentence you need to remember the letters and words and their meanings which are stored in long-term memory.

1.3.8.3.2. Ruchkin et al 2003 asked participants to recall a set of words and pseudo words. Brain activity was monitored and found large differences in the two conditions if pseudowords involved just your short-term memory activity should've been the same in both conditions but there was much more activity when the Real words were processed showing the involvement of other areas of the brain this this was concluded as showing short-term memory is actually just a part of long term memory.

1.4. Accuracy of eye witness testimony

1.4.1. Anxiety

1.4.1.1. Anxiety have a negative effect of accuracy stress of a negative effect on memory performance automatic skills not affected by stress performance complicated cognitive task is reduced by stress procedure Johnson and Scott 1976 participants are seated in a waiting room and heard an argument in the adjoining room they saw man running to the room carrying either including grace covered pen or a knife covered in blood high anxiety they were then asked to identify the person with pictures the person carrying the greasy pen was 49% accuracy and the bloody knife was 33 percent and this was due to the weapon focus effect where the focus of the participant was pulled towards the bloody knife and not the person

1.4.1.2. Anxiety high anxiety makes more enduring accurate memories is adapted to remember events and mostly important you can identify how to act in similar situations if that occur again christianson 1993 found evidence records recall when questioning 58 room witnesses to a bank robbery in Sweden who are the victims or bystanders high and low anxiety, being to views were conducted for months after the event an example with this it showed generally good memory details of the robbery better than 75% accurate recall those who are most anxious showed the best recall. Kenneth Deffenbacher 1983 review 21 studies on the effects of anxiety and found 10 of these had results are linked via arousal to increased eyewitness accuracy he suggested that the yerkes Dobson effect the principle that when arousal anxiety is only moderately eyewitness accuracy been enhanced when anxiety is extremely accuracy will be reduced

1.4.1.3. Evaluation

1.4.1.3.1. What the focus effect may not because by anxiety pickle 1998 suggested that the weapon focus effect could be due to surprise rather than anxiety. participants watched a robber walk in to hairdressing salon carrying ahnadgun, a wallet, scissors or a raw chicken. it was found that recall was worse in the high surprise conditions.

1.4.1.3.2. Your life versus lab studies a strength of christiansons study is that it is relatable to real life. Labs that is the not create real levels of anxiety.

1.4.1.3.3. No simple conclusion Christensens Study concerned a real-life crime other studies do not involve violence victims of violent crimes are more accurately recall than victims of non violent crimes

1.4.2. Misleading information

1.4.2.1. Leading questions loftus and former 1974 D2 experiments experiment 145 students were shown seven film 53 traffic accident after each film the participants were given a questionnaire was laughing to describe the accident and an answer series of specific questions about it there was one critical question about how bad because going on ahead each other one group of participants were given this question the other full briefing about/global contacted in place of the word hit critical questions leading questions are suggested your participant might give the findings are that the leading questions affected the response given by the participants those who have a lot of violence estimated a faster speed experiment 2 is looking at whether early? I need to submit a response and actually cause inflation to be altered before restored anisa participants were divided into three groups and shaded film the car accident last in one minute and once again asked questions about speed when they returned a week later they were asked if there was a lot of present at the time of the accident there was no broken glass in the film but mostly for the car is travelling faster might thought that there was more likely to be broken glass the findings from this experiment showed a leading question did change the actual memory participants had of the event

1.4.2.2. The conformity effect research by Fiona Gabbert in 2003 was an experiment participants were put in pairs in each partner watched a different video of the same event they saw unique items. Pleasant one position when close to discuss the event for each part individually recalled a very high number of witnesses 71% to discuss the level into the stately recall items acquired during the discussion when are this is interviewed as the possibility, is from the interview will be incorporated into the recollection of event is also case in the interview may use leading question enough water the limit of memory for events this is especially the case when children are being interviewed about crime

1.4.2.3. Evaluation

1.4.2.3.1. Supporting evidence considerate supports research on the effect of misleading information Loftus conducted a memorable study involving a cutout of Bugs Bunny college students were asked to evaluate advertising material at Disneyland embedded with the information that I'm about bugs and aerial neither character could have been seen as bugs Is not Disney and aerial has not yet been introduced at the time of their childhood participants assigned to both aerial and bugs when will likely to report having shaken hands with them showing how this misleading information can create inaccurate memory.

1.4.2.3.2. Eyewitness testimony in real life loftus research suggested the eyewitness testimony was generally inaccurate and therefore unreliable but not all research degree lab experiments carried out by Loftus may not represent real life they don't take the experiment seriously and not emotionally aroused in the way then be in a real accident and also to their responses would affect a trial the identification of a robber was more accurate Yuille and Cutshall 1986 found evidence of greater accuracy in real life witnesses to an armed robbery in Canada gave accurate reports four months after although they've initially been given two misleading question this shows misleading information has less influence on real-life eyewitness testimony

1.4.2.3.3. Real world applications the criminal justice system relies on eyewitness testimony and identification for investigating prosecuting criminals recent DNA exoneration cases confirmed the warnings eyewitness identification researchers Seamus taken eyewitness identification with the largest single factor contributing to the conviction of innocent people Wells and Olsen 2003

1.5. Explanations for forgetting

1.5.1. Retrieval failure

1.5.1.1. Forgetting long-term memory is due to retrieval failure lack of axis ability rather than availability the failure to find an item is because you have insufficient clues or cues being Encoding specificity principle formed by end up holding and Donald Thompson in 1973 said memories most affected if information that prisoner in coding is available at time of retrieval the closer the queue is to the original item the more useful it is. Tulving and Pearstone 1966 showed the value of retrieval cues where participants had to learn 48 words belonging to 12 categories each represented as the category two different recall conditions either free recall or cues in the free recall condition 40% of words where recalled recall was 60% in the groups with cues. this evidence shows cues explicitly or implicitly encoded at the time of learning have a meaningful link to the information. Another type of cue is the environmental context all the emotional state. context dependent forgetting one example by Ethel Abernathy 1940 showed a group of students tested before I course began they were then tested each week somewhat tested in their normal teaching room by the usual teacher others are tested by another instructor by their teacher or another teacher in a different room to where the information was learnt. It was found that the familiar things i.e. the room and the teacher acted as memory queues. The highest recall occurred when the recall environment Match the learning environment. Godden and baddeley 1974 investigating the effect of contextual clues by testing scuba divers one words they learn either online or in water highest recall occurred when the initial context match the recall environment. State dependent to getting the mental state you are in can act as queue. Goodwin et al asked male volunteers remember list of word when they were drunk or sober the next day they recalled the list someone drunk and some sober the recall scores showed your performance was better if you were drunk on both occasions also on both occasions.

1.5.1.2. Evaluation

1.5.1.2.1. A lot of research support examples of research show the wealth of research showing the importance of the retrieval queues on memory research includes the lab field and natural experiments making it relatable everyday memory experiences

1.5.1.2.2. Real-world application obvious application showed it can be used to improve recall for example taking exams abernethy research shows to revise in the room when you'll be taking exams will increase your result. This maybe unrealistic you could use your imagination such as thinking of the room where the original learning Took place i.e. mental reinstatement was just as effective that you being in the same room another application is in the cognitive interview.

1.5.1.2.3. Between the Houston always work Q not very effective information you are learning is related to more than just queues in research on context affects their learning wordlist when you are learning information for exams there is normally a more complex association that you are learning this is less easily triggered by single queues this is called outshining hypothesis effectiveness is reduced by the presence of better cues Smith and Vela 2001 say context effects are largely eliminated when learning meaningful material.

1.5.2. Interferance

1.5.2.1. Retroactive interference studied by Georg Muller done by giving participants a list of nonsense syllables to six minutes and then after a retention interval participants were asked to recall the list. Today performed Worthl if they had been given a intervening task between learning and recall the intervening task produced retroactive interference because the later task interfered with what had previously been learnt. Proactive interference Studied by Benton Underwood in 1957 showed Pi could be equally significant finding to a number of studies showed went participants at a series of words they don't learn a list of words later on in the sequence as well as those early on. Underwood found is 10 or more list were memorised after 24 hours they could only remember 20%. If they learned one list recall was over 70%. The Similarity of test material Studies by McGeoch and McDonald 1931 experimented the effects of similarity of materials 10 adjectives this day well earned been arrested interval of 10 minutes where they learn list b List B was a list of synonyms of List A recall was poor at only 12% it's List B with numbers there was a 37% recall. A real-world study done by baddelley and hitch in 1977 was done by asking rugby players to list every team they had played in one season. Each player has played different amounts of games due to injury it was found that those who had played the most games struggled to name more than those who have played less this was due to interference of later information affecting those who they played a game against at the beginning of the season.

1.5.2.2. Evaluation

1.5.2.2.1. Research is artificial considerable evidence supports both pro and retroactive interference. One issue is that it was last based it was an artificial list of words and nonsense syllables so therefore it does not relate everyday life participants may lack motivation causing them to alter the results of the study. This causes interference defects to appear stronger than they are causing the research to be low in ecological validity.

1.5.2.2.2. Interview and only explain some situations are forgetting interference effect to occur but they don't occur that often special conditions are required such as the two memories need to be quite similar interference is considered to be relatively unimportant explanations everyday forgetting Anderson 2000 said there is no doubt the interference plays a role in forgetting how much forgetting can be attribute it interference remains unclear

1.5.2.2.3. Accessibility versus availability interference effect actually called the memory to disappear or whether interference effect the temporary Ceraso 1967 found his memory was tested again after 24 hours access ability interference occurs because memories are temporarily not accessible rather than having actually been lost. Tulving supports this finding that interference affects availability rather than accessability

1.6. Types of Long term memory

1.6.1. Long-term memory is divided into two main types explicit and implicit episodic and semantic are types of explicit and procedural memories are implicit

1.6.1.1. Episodic memory- knowing about an event or group of events occurring as part of the larger sequence. This is concerned with your personal experiences. You may recall the time or day you may also recall the context (what happened before or after) as well as associated memories that you felt at that time. Episodic memories have three elements specific details of the event, the context and the emotion.

1.6.1.2. Semantic memory about knowing that, semantic memories are knowledge which is shared by everyone rather than the personal kind semantic memories maybe functions of objects behaviour is appropriate such as social questions about also relate to abstract concepts such as maths and language. Semantic memory begins at three memories as we acquire knowledge based on personal experiences they transition gradually from episode to semantic memory loses its association to particular events the information can be generalised semantic memory. However people can continue to have a strong recollection of where and when they learnt a particular fact

1.6.1.3. Procedure memories are concerned with skills I.e. Tying A shoelace it is remembering how to do something that we acquired through repetition practice and they become automatic this kind of memories is implicit. If you Think too much about doing it, it prevents you from acting them out. Attention to the step-by-step procedure disrupts the automatic performance. It is important that procedural memories automatic so we can focus our attention on other tasks whilst performing these everyday skills.

1.6.2. Evaluation

1.6.2.1. Evaluation from brain scans the three kinds of memory can be supported by research using brain scanning. Different areas of the brain active when different types of long-term memory are being used. Episodic memory uses the hippocampus and other parts of temporal lobe. Episodic memory is associated with the frontal lobe different elements are distributed in other areas of the brain connected together by the hippocampus to form episodes. Semantic memory relies on temporal lobe. Procedural memory is associated with this cerebellum involved in the control fine motor skills and the motor cortex. Basal ganglia and the limbic system are involved in this kind of learning.

1.6.2.2. Distinguishing procedural and declarative memories HM had an operation effective ability to form new long-term memory due to the destruction of his hippocampus. However this is not completely true. HM could form new procedural memory but not episodic or semantic. He learnt how to draw a figure by looking at its reflection in the mirror a skill called mirror drawing Corkin 2002, this is a procedural memory that he learned however he could not remember learning it.

1.6.2.3. Distinguishing episodic and semantic memories. the relationship between episode instrumented memories causes a question of whether episodic memories are a gateway to forming semantic memory or whether semantic memory can be formed individually. Looking at cases of Alzheimer's researchers found some retain the ability to form new episode memory however not semantic memory Hodges and Patterson 2007. Single association i.e. separation between two abilities. However this is not sufficient evidence that the two distinct because it could be the episode of memory places greater general demands mental processing and that could be why it's more affected by the brain damage. For that reason researchers look for a doubled dissociations. One example found by Irish et al in 2011 in Alzheimer's patients who had the reverse of what was expected they had poor semantic memories but generally intact episodic memories

1.6.2.4. Evidence from patients with brain damage, problems include the fact that the brain damage may have caused other issues such as attention issues causing them to underperform on certain tasks

1.6.2.5. The fourth kind of long term memory called priming describes practising memory influence responses made to stimuli primed memories are automatic and unconscious. Research shows priming is controlled by brain system is separate from the temporal system supporting explicit memory. This led to the suggestion of a fourth long-term memory system called the perceptual representation system for PRS memory or PRS causing automatic in half recognition is specific

2. SOCIAL INFLUENCE

2.1. Conformity to social roles

2.1.1. Stanford prison experiment procedure male volunteers assigned roles of other prisoners or guards prisoners referred to by numbers only God giving uniforms and power to make rules finding God became critical and abusive with the prisoners prisoners conform to their role some showing extreme reactions of crying rage

2.1.2. BBC prison study Reicher and Haslam procedure male volunteers matched on social and clinical measures assigned roles of prisoners and guards findings unlike the standard prison experiment neither castle participants conform to their roles prisoners worked collectively to challenge authority of the guards resulting in a power shift

2.1.3. Evaluation

2.1.3.1. Conformity to Roles isn't automatic h&r argue that the guards chose to behave rather than blindly conforming to the social role

2.1.3.2. Banuazizi and Movahedi how did that participants behave in Stanford prison experiment was a response to powerful demand characteristics

2.1.3.3. Where the studies ethical? Zimbardo;s studies followed ethical guidelines but participants still suffered greater steps to minimise potential harm to participants in this study

2.2. Types of conformity and explanations for conformity

2.2.1. Types of conformity compliant conforming to gain approval internalisation conforming because of an acceptance of their views identification accepting influence because of the desire to be associated with a group identification has elements of compliance and internalisation

2.2.2. Explanations for conformity normative social influence conformity based on the desire for approval more likely to occur when individual believes they are under surveillance by the group informational social influence based on an acceptance of information from others as evidence that reality more likely if the situation is ambiguous aware or others are experts

2.2.3. Evaluation

2.2.3.1. Difficulties distinguishing between compliance internalisation

2.2.3.2. Research support for normative influence

2.2.3.2.1. linkenback and perkins

2.2.3.3. Researchers support for informational influence

2.2.3.3.1. Wittenbrink and Henley

2.3. Variables affecting conformity

2.3.1. Asch 1956 procedure participants The different length think a pattern to standard lime it contained confederated participants answering second to last confederate go from wrong answers on 12/18 trials winding conformity rate is approximately 33% without Confederate participants make mistakes 1% of the time participants conformed to avoid disapproval

2.3.2. Variables affecting conformity the group size increase to 30% with 33 Camborne fairy Group sizes different effect depending on the type of judgement motivation anonymity of the majority with one dissenter giving the right answer conformity was 5.5% dissenter giving the wrong answer conformity 9% difficulty the task is incorrect answers less obvious conformity with fire Lukas et al influence of task difficulty moderated by individual self efficacy

2.3.3. Evaluation

2.3.3.1. Ashes research is a child of its time by perrin and spencer

2.3.3.2. we know very little about the effects of larger majority thousands of conformity levels

2.3.3.3. Independent behaviour rather than conformity Protestants maintained independence on two thirds of the trials

2.4. Social influence to processes in social change

2.4.1. Social change to minority influence

2.4.1.1. Drawing attention to an issue

2.4.1.1.1. Minority create a conflict between majority position a minority position

2.4.2. Social change through the majority influence

2.4.2.1. If people see something of the norm they alter that behaviour to fit that correcting misinterpretations of actual norms using shows social norms interventions i.e. that drunk drivers campaign in Montana it resulted in a drop of drink driving by 13.7%

2.4.3. Evaluation

2.4.3.1. Influence of minority more likely to be latent rather than directl

2.4.3.2. Being perceived as deviant limits the influence of minorities

2.4.3.3. Social norms interventions have the limitations not always lead to social change for example DeJong et al

2.5. Authoritarian personality

2.5.1. People scoring higher on a scale are raised within authoritarian family background (adorno et al)

2.5.2. Elms and Milgrom 1966 20 obedient participants and 20 defiant participants pciked to take part in a study where they had to answer the MMPI test and the F scale test and then asked open-ended questions findings little difference between obedient and defiant on MMPI higher levels of authoritarianism in obedience participants obedient participants reported being less posted fathers in childhood

2.5.3. Evaluation

2.5.3.1. Correlation between RWA schools and maximum voltage shock (Dambrun and Valtine)

2.5.3.2. Explanations based on authoritarianism lacked flexibility

2.5.3.3. Many fully obedient participants had good relationships with their parents

2.6. Minority influence

2.6.1. Minority influence effective with a consistent committed and flexible style. Wood et al minorities who were especially consistent the most influential commitment is important as it suggests 13 confidence flexibility is more effective at changing opinions then rigid arguments.

2.6.2. Key study Moscovici 1969 groups of four naive participants and 2 considerates, shanklin size the Confederate called them green. Group 1 confederates called in green consistently Group to confederate called them green inconsistently, findings consistent minority influence naive participants to say greener 8% of trials inconsistent minority exerted very little influence

2.6.3. Evaluation

2.6.3.1. Research support and flexibility Nemeth and Brilmayer

2.6.3.2. The real value of minority influence is a open mind Nemeth

2.6.3.3. Mackie argues that it is the majority that processes information

2.7. Resistance to social influence

2.7.1. Social support presence of social support enables individuals to resist conformity asch social support breaks anonymity and provides an independent assessment of reality disobedience he is act as role models obedience rates drop to 10% went two confederates defied the experimenter, milligram. Locus of control internal locus of control= greater independence and less reliant upon the opinion of others. External likes of control= more passive attitude in great acceptance of the influence of others hi internals less vulnerable to influence and better able to resist coercion Hutchins and etsey

2.7.2. Evaluation

2.7.2.1. Social support and conformity studies more effective when it was from first responder in the group

2.7.2.2. Supporters may not have to be valid to be effective Allen and leave line

2.7.2.3. Locus of control relating to normative but not in formational influence spector

2.7.2.4. Substantial increase in external nullities since 1960 Twenge et al

2.8. Agentic state and legitimacy of authority

2.8.1. Agent state - personal accident agents carry another person's wishes binding factors operate to maintain obedient e.g. sexual etiquette demonstrated in action and my Lai

2.8.2. Legitimacy of authority person must perceive individual in a position of social control people except definitions of the situation offered by legitimate authority figure it just ripped my variety of institutions e.g. a university or the military

2.8.3. Evaluation

2.8.3.1. Did you dictate a nice language of conditions found in Nazi doctors

2.8.3.2. Agentive stable cruelty?

2.8.3.3. Legitimacy can serve as the basis to justifying harm to others

2.9. Situational variables affecting obedience

2.9.1. Situational factors in obedience proximity of the is levels decrease with increasing proximity i.e. when there experimented with out the room location of these levels dropped to 48 lower status setting the power of uniform people are more likely to obey someone in uniform bushman

2.9.2. Research on obedience

2.9.2.1. Milgram 1963

2.9.2.1.1. 40 volunteer participants each condition reported spectacular teacher consider it is Lana teacher demonstrated increasing shock levels up to 450 V findings invoice feedback condition 65% X 450 V all participants went to 300 V level

2.9.2.2. Evaluation

2.9.2.2.1. Ethical issues due to deception and knackered informed consent

2.9.2.2.2. Internal validity Orne and Holland playing many participants thought through the deception

2.9.2.2.3. Individual differences eight of nine applications found no gender differences in obedience Blass

3. ATTACHMENT

3.1. Animal studies of attachmebt

3.1.1. Lorenz

3.1.1.1. Procedure

3.1.1.1.1. Goose eggs incubated so first living thing they saw was the natural mother or Lorenz

3.1.1.2. Findings

3.1.1.2.1. Goslings in printed on the Lorenz and followed him

3.1.1.3. Long-lasting effects irreversible and related to mate choice sexual imprinting

3.1.1.4. Evaluation

3.1.1.4.1. research support guinton et al.

3.1.1.4.2. Imprinting issues may not be irreversible and may be little more than just learning

3.1.2. Harlow

3.1.2.1. Procedure

3.1.2.1.1. Why mothers one cloth covered feeding bottle attached to one or other

3.1.2.2. Finding monkey spent most time with cloth covered mother whether or not feeding bottle was attached to it

3.1.2.3. Critical period attachment must be formed befor six months

3.1.2.4. Long lasting effects all motherless monkeys were abnormal socially and sexually

3.1.2.5. Evaluation

3.1.2.5.1. Confounding variable why monkey faces different varied systematically with the independent variable

3.1.2.5.2. Generalising humans may not be justified that findings confirmed e.g. schaffer and emerson

3.2. influence of early attachment

3.2.1. Internal working model model of self and attachment partner based on their joint attachment history which generates expectations about current and future relationships. Hazan and shaver replace love quiz in newspaper and analysed 620 responses. Findings positive relationship between attachment type and love experiences/attitudes behaviour is influenced by internal working model childhood friendships (Minnesota child parent study) Poor parenting quinton et al) romantic relationships (Hzaan and shaver) and mental health(Attachment disorder)

3.2.2. Evaluation

3.2.2.1. Correlation research internal working model menopause later relationship experiences temperate maybe and intervening variable the temperament hypothesis

3.2.2.2. Retrospective classification chartered attachment type based on memories of childhood which maybe inaccurate they support from longitudinal study Simpson et al

3.2.2.3. Only determinist past attachment experiences do not always determine the course of future relationship

3.3. Roman orphan studies: effects of institutionalisation

3.3.1. Rutter et al hundred and 65 Roman orphans physical cognitive and social development tested at regular intervals finding age 11 those children adopted for six months showed good recovery older dolphins associated with disnhibited attachment Canadian study Le mare and Audet Romanian Study Zeanah et al institutionalised Romanian orphans compared control group more likely to display disinhibited attachment effective institutionalisation underdevelopment such as deprivation dwarfism, gardner, intellectual under functioning Skodak and Skeels disinhibited attachment poor parenting quinton et al

3.3.2. Evaluation

3.3.2.1. Individual differences some tuition here to recover despite no apparent attachments within sensitive period

3.3.2.2. Real-life application adoption should be as early as possible and then i infants are securely attached Singer et al

3.3.2.3. Longitudinal studies show some changes take a while to come apparent current studies show some recovery is possible

3.4. Bowlby's theory of maternal deprivation

3.4.1. Value of maternal care children need a warm Internet a continuous relationship with the mother or mother substitute period frequent and/or prolonged separations from a mother will have negative effects of paper before the age of 2 1/2 critical period or up to the age of five sensitive period is based over the substitute long-term consequences include emotional maladjustment or mental disorders such as depression the key study is a 44 juvenile thieves the findings of 86% of affectionless thieves had frequent separations before 2 compared with seventeen % of the other thieves and just 2% of the control group

3.4.2. Evaluation

3.4.2.1. emotional rather physical separation is harmful Radke Yarrow

3.4.2.2. Support for long-term effects Bifuco

3.4.2.3. Real-world application films of Laura what about social change bowlby and Robertson

3.5. Ainsworth strange situation

3.5.1. Types of attachment

3.5.1.1. Ainsworth a systematic test of attachment to one caregiver situation of mild stress and novelty procedure observations every 15 seconds behaviour behaviours assessed separation anxiety when union behaviour strange anxiety and the secure base and the finding of attachment secure 65% type b insecure avoidance 22% type a insecure resistant 12% type c

3.5.1.2. Evaluation

3.5.1.2.1. Other types of attachment disorganised type D.

3.5.1.2.2. High reliability interobserver reliability high, 94

3.5.1.2.3. Real-world application circle of security project

3.5.2. Cultural variations in attachment

3.5.2.1. Case study van ijzendoorn and kroonenburg meta analysis 32 studies using the strange situation from eight countries findings Secure attachment was the norm in all countries greater variation within countries and between them cultural similarities Efe if Infants tronic et al cultural differences more insecure attachment in German sample Grossman Grossman cultural differences no avoidant attachment in Japan sample Takahashi

3.5.2.2. Evaluation

3.5.2.2.1. Similarities may be due to global culture VI& K

3.5.2.2.2. Within countries there are cultural differences rural versus urban Japanese V I and sagi

3.5.2.2.3. Cross cultural research uses tools developed in one country in a different setting where has been developed into a different meaning imposed etic

3.6. explanations of attachment

3.6.1. Learning theory

3.6.1.1. Learning theory behaviourism overpays alone rather than inherited practical conditioning new condition response learnt through association between a neutral stimulus mother and an unconditional stimulus food operate conditioning the reduction of discomfort created by hunger is rewarding is the food becomes a primary reinforcer associated with the mother who becomes a secondary reinforcer social learning children model parent attachment behaviours Hay and Vespo

3.6.1.2. Evaluation

3.6.1.2.1. Animal studies Black external validity because simplified view of human attachment

3.6.1.2.2. Attachment is not based on food Harlow showed it was contact comfort supported by Shaffer and Emerson

3.6.1.2.3. Learning theory can explain some aspects of attachment attention and responsiveness awards

3.6.2. Bowlby's theory

3.6.2.1. This becomes increasingly difficult primary attachment figure determined by caregivers sensitivity and is worth stop social releases illicit caregiving any short attachment from parent infant P primary attachment has special emotional role secondary attachments provide a safety net internal working model act as a templated future relationships creating continuity i.e. the continuity hypothesis

3.6.2.2. Evaluation

3.6.2.2.1. Attachment is adaptive

3.6.2.2.2. A sensitive period that the critical one Rutter et al

3.6.2.2.3. Multiple attachments always use and contradictory because secondary attachments contribute to one single internal working model

3.7. Caregiver-infant interactions

3.7.1. Description reciprocity taking turns as in conversation by Jaffe et al Brazelton, mother anticipates infant signals which is the basis of attachment. Interactional synchrony coordinated behaviour Meltzoff and Moore three day old babies imitate mothers. Piaget behaviour is pseudo imitation which is operate conditioning Murray and Trevarthen infant distress if no response supports innateness

3.7.2. Evaluation

3.7.2.1. Testing infant behaviours difficult as they are in constant motion

3.7.2.2. Failure to replicate Meltzoff and Moore, Marian Et al

3.7.2.3. intentionality supported-no response to an inanimate object, Anravanel and DeYong

3.8. development of attachment

3.8.1. Schaffer and Emerson studied 60 infants and mothers from Glasgow found four stages of the attachment stage one indiscriminate attachments stage two beginnings of attachment stage three specific attachments stage four multiple attachments. Biological factors Women have hormones which encouraged caringness. Nevertheless manor primary attachment figures or share this role, Frank et alm secondary attachment fathers more playful (Geiger) problem solving (white and Woollett)

3.8.2. Evaluation

3.8.2.1. Unreliable data mothers and less securely attached infant would be less sensitive and possibly less accurate in their report systematic bias

3.8.2.2. Biased sample working class population from 1960s results may not be able to be generalised

3.8.2.3. Multiple attachments Rutter argued all relationships are equivalent