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Basal Ganglia by Mind Map: Basal Ganglia
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Basal Ganglia

Pathophysiology of dyskinesia in experimental PD

Picconi et al 2003, pisani et al 2005

Intermittent TBS over M1 showed that PD patients with LIDs do not have the normal increase in MEP size

Morgante et al Brain 2006

Suppa et al 2010

Functional Circuitry






Movement analysis of Bradykinesia in PD

Small first EMG agonis burst, additional bursts (failur to energize movements) during arm and ahnd movements

failure to match EMG parameters to the size of movements required (inappropriate scaling of movement)

Difficulty in self-initiated and externally triggered arm movements (more self initiated)

impairment of individual finger movements more than gross hand movements

Bradykinesia and DBS-STN

Agostino et al JNNP 2008, Agostino et al Mov. Disord 2008


Eyelids movements in PD


PD patients

Somatosensory discemination: study procedure

Conte et al Brain 2010

Experimental parkinsonism and lessons from surgery

Putamen,STN and GPi, show an increased neuronal response to peripheral stimulation with impairment of normal filtering of incoming signals.

Synaptic plasticity

Acitivty dependent modification of the strength or efficacy of synaptic transmission at preexisting synapses (short term and long term plasticity)

Prescott et al. 2009

Transcranial magnetic stimulation: studies of plasticity

Long term plasticity

The dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) in PD

selecting appropriate movements

suppressing other activities

Experimental paradigm



can be seen as a defect of motor circuit to generate a phasic inhibition of HPi neurons and facilitate cortical activation.

problems with performing simultaneous movement due to connectivity problem


Rigidity and tremor in PD

rigidity is not explained by the classical model. Probably also involves disinhibition of brainsem mechanisms and spinal cord

the abnormal oscillatory activity in the network involving the basal ganglia, the cerebellar... (etc - missed)

Picture (circuits)

Pathophysiology of dystonia

excessive and sustained muscle contractions causing abnormal postures and involuntary movements

also cerebellum may be involved

Neuronal activity in dystonia

Cortical plasticity and connectivity in dystonia

Shared neurophysiological findings of focal organic dystonias