Foundations of Educatiom

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Foundations of Educatiom by Mind Map: Foundations of Educatiom

1. Equality of Opportunity

1.1. Do you have the following beliefs?

1.1.1. Public education has been conceived as a social vehicle for minimizing the importance of wealth and class as a determinant of who shall get ahead.

1.1.2. Americans believe that hard work, thrift, and a bit of luck determine who will get ahead.

1.2. Social stratification is a structural characteristic of societies

1.3. Human differences do not cause social stratification; social stratification causes human differences

1.4. Are all men seen as equals?

1.5. Class systems says that a persons worth is determined by their ability to overcome by personal achievement.

1.6. Estate Systems- a persons social level is determined by family value and worth.

1.7. Social Class achievement levels

1.7.1. Educational achievement is directly related to family achievement and social class.

1.7.2. The Lower classes in America have had their ability to achieve at a lower rate

1.8. Class

1.8.1. Schools represent the middle and upper class

1.8.2. parental income is directly related to educational success.

1.9. Race

1.9.1. race has a direct impact of how much educational attainment a person achieves.

1.9.2. Minorities do not receive the same educational opportunities as white Americans.

1.10. Gender

1.10.1. In the last twenty years significant gains have been made to equalize gender educational and professional attainment.

1.10.2. Disparities still exist for women in society and education

1.11. SAT and ACT test have become the determining factor for educational gains.

1.12. PL 94-142 or the EHA

1.12.1. Education of Handicapped 1975 law that created special ed

1.13. IDEA 1996

1.14. REI- Regular educational initiative or mainstreaming.

1.15. Does where you live determine educational success?

1.16. The Coleman Study 1966

1.16.1. Coleman found that school organizational differences did not contribute to student outcomes as much as student body caused the outcomes.

1.16.2. Private schools out perform public schools

1.16.3. Differences in schools do make a difference.

1.17. School Segregation

1.17.1. highly segregated schools have lower achievement levels than integrated schools.

2. Educational Inequality

2.1. Sociological Explorations of Inequality

2.1.1. Interactionists- believe factors such as family, social class, and environment determine success.

2.1.2. Functionalist- believe success is determined by their own hard work

2.1.3. Conflict Theorists- believe success is effected by their environment

2.1.4. Student-Centered factors such as family, peer group, community, culture, and the student.

2.1.5. School-Centered factors include teachers, teaching methods, curriculum, school, climate, and teacher expectations

2.2. Student Centered Explanations

2.2.1. Genetic differences

2.2.2. Cultural Deprivation

2.2.3. Cultural Differences

2.2.4. School Financing

2.2.5. Effective schools

2.2.6. Curriculum and Ability Grouping

2.3. The Big Question

2.3.1. Do Schools Reproduce Inequality? Family produces inequality not the schools

3. Curriculum and Pedagogy

3.1. What is taught and how do we teach it?

3.1.1. Social Influences

3.1.2. Political Influences

3.1.3. Societies' Influences

3.1.4. Cultural Influences

3.1.5. Special Interests

3.2. Idealist say we should teach the great works of mankind

3.3. Social Efficiency Curriculum advocates say that we should reflect and teach what is important for society to be functional and productive

3.3.1. Different needs for different people was their concern for curriculum

3.4. Communities and schools reflect what is important to them as a society

3.5. Who shapes the curriculum and determines what is taught?

3.6. Should business determine the curriculum?

3.7. Should Religion determine curriculum?

3.8. Influences on Curriculum

3.8.1. Evolutionists

3.8.2. Creationists

3.8.3. Science and Math

3.8.4. Nation at Risk

3.8.5. NCLB

3.8.6. RTT

3.9. Formal Curriculum

3.9.1. What is cognitively taught (subjects)

3.10. Informal or Hidden Curriculum

3.10.1. Taught but not obvious to sight

3.11. Null Curriculum

3.11.1. What is not taught but is learned (values of the community)

3.12. Social Order helps determine curriculum

3.13. A Capitalist society perpetuates the curriculum for maintaining social order.

3.14. Do students actually learn what is taught?

3.14.1. There is a gap between what students learn and what teachers actually teach "Close The Gap"

3.15. How will you teach and what determines how you teach? One word describes or determines your approach.

4. Schools As Organizations

4.1. The U.S. Constitution does not provide for education

4.1.1. Each state is responsible for its education programs.

4.2. The U.S. Department of Education was created in 1970.

4.2.1. The U.S. Dept. of Education has very little power.

4.3. Centralization

4.3.1. 55 million students are educated at the cost of $650 billion. 1930's there was 128,000 public school districts 1980's there was slightly under 16,000 districts in the U.S

4.4. Student Composition in Public Schools

4.4.1. 53.5 % are white Of the states, 16 gave less than 50% white 10 states have no minorities

4.5. Degree of Openness

4.5.1. Very few academic impediments exist to graduate high school but many social impediments exist. Very democratic process of education Open to all and very inclusive

4.6. Private schools

4.6.1. There are approximately 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the U.S. Private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of all students. 1n 1930's there was less than 10,000 private schools, in 2009 there was 21,700 private schools.

4.7. School Processes and cultures

4.7.1. Schools are separate social organizations They have definitive populations They have political structures

4.8. Teachers, Teaching and Professionalism

4.8.1. The Nature of teaching requires many hats and is very demanding as a result This multiple roles are a significant factor in teacher burn-out Turn each day into a special event

5. Educational Reform and School Improvement

5.1. Federal Involvement Programs

5.1.1. America 2000

5.1.2. Goals 2000

5.1.3. No Child Left Behind

5.1.4. Race to the Top

5.2. "A place called School"

5.3. Approaches to Reform

5.3.1. Neo Liberal Approach

5.3.2. Societal and Community Approach

5.4. School Based Reforms

5.4.1. School Choice

5.4.2. Charter Schools

5.4.3. Tuition Vouchers

5.4.4. Intersectional Choice Plans

5.4.5. Intrasectional Choice Plans

5.5. School-Business Partnerships

5.5.1. Privatization of schools

5.5.2. School to work Programs

5.6. Teacher Education Programs

5.6.1. Three major points More intellectual demands in education programs Attract retain competent teachers Reorganize educational academic and professional development

6. It exists without anyone perceiving it

7. Sociological Perspectives

7.1. The big Question

7.1.1. How Can schools create to an equitable and functional environment?

7.2. Persall anaylisis model- The institutional, the intrapersonal, Intrapsyic

7.2.1. the interpersonal all the processes, symbols interactions within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures, and rituals.

7.2.2. The Institutional level includes family, schools, churches, business, government, and media

7.3. It is important for teachers to be a reflective practitioner.

7.4. Sociology is the understanding of how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about the societies and culture in which they live.

7.5. Highly effective schools

7.5.1. strong leadership

7.5.2. teachers believe all students can learn

7.5.3. constant review of student progress

7.5.4. have a learning enviroment

7.6. Students stratify students into tracks by curricular placements which results in how they are successful

7.7. Schools select students for educational mobility

7.8. Schools are agents of cultural social transmission

7.9. Goal of Education

7.9.1. Training individuals for employment or thinking

7.10. Effects of schooling on individuals

7.10.1. how people learn mobility job performance employment income

7.11. Most students believe higher education means more financial income when they are employed

7.12. Curriculum determines who goes to college

7.13. education on inequality

7.13.1. Top 20% in the U.S. owns 75% of wealth

7.13.2. Top 2% of the world own 80% of the wealth

7.13.3. Are social classes perpetuated by society and schools?

7.14. People segregate themselves into their comfort areas

7.15. Racial Integration benefits minorities more than the majority.

7.16. Integration does not seem to harm the majority gender biases

7.17. Effects of Schooling on individuals

7.17.1. One third of children are at risk of failing

7.17.2. 15 million are reared by single mothers

7.17.3. One fourth of preschool children live in poverty.

7.17.4. How can schools help students when they start at such a disadvantage?

8. Philosophy of Education

8.1. Love Centered

8.2. Pragmatic

8.2.1. student needs Aptitude Surveys

8.2.2. Social Reconstructionist

8.2.3. Meet the needs of society

8.3. Progressivism

8.3.1. Student Centered

8.4. Essentialism

8.4.1. Teacher Centered

8.4.2. Adm. Driven Curriculum

8.5. Perenialist

8.5.1. Self Promoting Individuals make the difference

8.6. Idealism

8.6.1. Socrates

8.7. Realism

8.7.1. Aristotle Aristotle created a system of logical thinking.

8.7.2. The material world is real

8.7.3. The real world exists before ideas exist

9. History of U.S. Education

9.1. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647

9.1.1. Taught all students to read the Bible

9.2. The school serves as the focal point for addressing societal issues

9.3. Colleges were created before the country was founded.

9.3.1. Harvard

9.3.2. Yale

9.4. Education in the South was mainly intended for upper class (Plantation Owners).

9.5. The committee of ten was created by the national education which was chaired by Harvard University president, Charles Elliot.

9.6. The Dilemma

9.6.1. Tension between classical subjects such as Latin and Greek versus science and math, etc.

9.6.2. High School students need to be prepared for life not college.

9.6.3. All students should follow the same courses of study regardless of need for further education.

9.6.4. The Cardinal Principles of Education

9.7. Post World War II 1945 - 1980

9.7.1. Progressive vs. Traditional

9.7.2. The college student movement for civil rights

9.7.3. Post World War II demands required more technical innovations and focused on social mobility

9.7.4. The battle: standards of an education versus the education opportunity for all.

9.7.5. The Importance of the GI bill

9.8. Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896

9.8.1. Public facilities could separate races but the facilities must be equal

9.9. Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education 1954

9.10. Elementary/ Secondary Education Act 1965 provided for special needs students.

9.11. Reforms of the Standards Era 1980's to present day Cycles of Reform continued

9.11.1. The Space race had a major influence on math and science being taught in schools

9.11.2. Emphasis went back to individual needs due to the Civil Rights Act 1963

9.11.3. Nation at risk (Reagan)

9.11.4. Goals 2000 (Clinton)

9.11.5. NCLB (Bush)

9.11.6. RTT (Obama)

9.11.7. Kent State University students protested the Vietnam war. 4 students were killed by national guard troops that were called into to control the protest.

9.12. Three Historical Perspectives of U.S. Education

9.12.1. Democratic-Liberal School

9.12.2. Radical-Revisionist School

9.12.3. Conservative School

9.13. F.A.P.E

9.13.1. Free Appropriate Public Education