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World War I by Mind Map: World War I

1. Causes

1.1. Historiography

1.1.1. Fischer: Domestic problems fuel aggressive foreign policy.

1.1.2. Turner: It was a series of unfortunate miscalculations.

1.1.3. Taylor: “The alliances created an excessively rigid diplomatic framework, within which relatively small detonators could produce huge explosions.”

1.1.4. Martel: The Balkans was a powerful political vortex, which drew nations in.

1.2. System of Alliances

1.2.1. Europe was to be divided in two camps; the Triple Alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary (1882) and The Triple Entente of Great Britain, Russia and France (1907).

1.2.2. Alliances were defensive but it meant nations were bound to be involved in each other's conflicts.

1.2.3. Germany effectively had a WAR ON TWO FRONTS, so these alliances greatly influenced its foreign policy.

1.2.4. Main disputes: - Germany and France over Alsace + Lorraine - Russia and Austria over the Balkans - Britain and Germany over their naval powers.

1.3. Militarism

1.3.1. France had increased military spending by 92%, Germany by 158% and Britain by 117%.

1.3.2. The armies of both France and Germany had doubled since 1870.

1.3.3. Mistrust grew in proportion to the amount of weaponry.

1.3.4. Britain and Germany faced colonial rivalries and naval races, which spurred aggressive foreign policy.

1.4. Nationalism

1.4.1. Militarism grew simultaneously with nationalism.

1.4.2. Each nation had their respective nationalistic desires: - Germany's Weltpolitik made it desire for world status - France sought revenge over the loss of Alsace and Lorraine - British Imperialism

1.4.3. Nationalism created a precedent whereby there was little resistance to war in these countries.

1.5. War Plans

1.5.1. Nationalism ensured each country had war plans.

1.5.2. Difficult to stop mobilizing troops once it had begun.

1.5.3. EVERY nation had war plans: - Germany's Schlieffen Plan --> Quickly attack France, through Belgium, then attack Russia. - France had Plan XVII - Russia had Plan G Austria-Hungary Plan R and Plan B

1.5.4. All of these plans assumed cooperation of their allies.

1.5.5. Once the first steps towards mobilisation were taken, everyone assumed that it would be fatal to stand still while their enemies moved forward.

1.6. The Balkans

1.6.1. Ottoman Empire was losing its influence and land = Power Vacuum.

1.6.2. Austria and Russia squabbled over influence in the Balkans. Russia encouraged pan-slavism, attempting to unite all Slavs under Russia. Austria-Hungary saw Pan-Slavism as undermining her mostly non-Austrian empire.

1.6.3. Balkans War 1912-1913 --> Serbia doubled in size, Austria's population was predominantly Slav.

1.6.4. Austria's mission was to launch a preventative war against Serbia, waiting for an appropriate pretext, i.e: Assassination of Arch-Duke Franz Ferdinand.

1.7. Domestic Problems

1.7.1. The war drew attention away from - Potential civil war situation in Ireland - Crisis over income tax and military service in France - Rising movement of Socialism in Germany - Unpopularity of the Tsar in Russia

1.7.2. Fischer Thesis: Domestic problems fuel aggressive foreign policy.

1.8. The Crises before 1914/Failed Diplomacy

1.8.1. Diplomatic crises exposed differences between nations and exacerbated hostilities between them.

1.8.2. First Moroccan Crisis 1905 --> Kaiser WII renounces French influence to test Anglo-French Entente.

1.8.3. Annexation of Bosnia to Austria 1908 --> Austria deceives Russian foreign ministry with access to Dardanelles, and Russia bows down to German pressure.

1.8.4. Second Moroccan Crisis 1911 --> Kaiser sends ships to Africa to protect German civilians, but is humiliated when they back down to France and Britain.

1.8.5. Attitudes were hardened and alliances were strengthened: - Britain and France over the Moroccan Crisis - Austria and Germany over the Bosnia Crisis

1.9. July Crisis of 1914

1.9.1. Once the military machine had mobilised, the generals took over the diplomats.

1.9.2. 28 June: Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

1.9.3. 5 July: Germany issues Blank Cheque to Austria.

1.9.4. 23 July: Austria presents ultimatum which was "designed to be rejected.

1.9.5. 28 July: Serbia rejects ultimatum and Russia begins its partial mobilisation.

1.9.6. 29 July: Germany issues ultimatums to France and Russia, which they both rejected.

1.9.7. August: Germany invades Belgium, and Britain declares war on Germany.

2. Fighting

2.1. War on Land

2.1.1. A-H Empire had no involvement in naval warfare.

2.1.2. Trench warfare slowed down attack plans, especially since Germany needed quick victories.

2.1.3. Italians (tried 15 times) attacked Austria-Hungary and succeeded

2.1.4. A-H Empire had to defend another front, Russia attacking Galicia. Faced war on two fronts.

2.1.5. German battles at Verdun, Passchendaele, Somme --> 600,000 lives each battle

2.1.6. Importance of Schlieffen Plan --> highlighted Germany’s LACK OF LONG-TERM STRATEGY

2.1.7. Counter-arguments: naval blockade caused food shortages, but Germany had secured resources in Ukraine.

2.1.8. Technology was very important: machine guns, artillery.

2.2. War at Sea

2.2.1. Britain had imposed a naval blockade Countries were not allowed to impose blockades during war 424,000 German had died, imports went down by 50%

2.2.2. Germany’s fear of encirclement

2.2.3. War at Sea --> shattered German morale and U-boat Germans sink the Lusitania and receive an admonition In the beginning of the war, U-boats were effective Lusitania + Zimmerman Telegram --> US BROUGHT INTO WAR United states was the “blood transfusion” for the allies US had depth charges and anti-submarine warfare Germany failed in Battle of Jutland, war at sea appears to be quite decisive

2.3. War in the Air

2.3.1. Planes were mainly used for reconnaissance.

2.3.2. Germans used Zeppelins until the British successfully found ways to make them explode.

3. Consequences

3.1. Germany signed an armistice on the on the 11th of November in 1918.

3.2. Paris Peace Conference gave birth to five treaties, the Treaty of Versailles being the most significant.

3.2.1. 1919 Treaty of Versailles Historiography: Sympathethic: Critical: Mitigating: Forces that shaped the Treaty: Political pressures from the public. Desire to punish Germany. Consequences of the Treaty Germany was (supposedly) incapable of immediately paying reparations.

3.2.2. 1919 Treaty of Neuilly: Treaty with Bulgaria

3.2.3. 1920 Treaty of Sèvres: Treaty with Turkey, which was to be rectified and softened by the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923.

3.2.4. 1919 Treaty of St. Germain: Treaty with Austria-Hungary which essentially forbade Anschluss (union) with Germany.

3.2.5. 1920 Treaty of Trianon: Treaty with Hungary.

3.3. League of Nations

3.3.1. Achievements: - Small settlements of Islands in Scandinavia - Border disputes between Greece and Bulgaria - Border disputes between Hungary and Yugoslavia

3.3.2. Failures: - Failed to counter Japanese aggression in Manchuria in 1931. - Italian attacks on Abyssinia in 1935. - Polish seizures of towns.

3.3.3. Mussolini quote: "The League is all right when sparrows quarrel. It fails when Eagles fall out."