Anthropology

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Anthropology by Mind Map: Anthropology

1. Topic 2

1.1. Evolutionist school

1.1.1. Argues that the societies shall pass through states of development, in that way they could be able to place in some of them.

1.1.2. To maintain the social cohesion, understanding the cohesion as the proper function of the society.

1.2. Savagery

1.2.1. Lower: subsistence through the collection of wild food, promiscuity, nomadic horde as a basic unit of this type of societies, and common property of resources.

1.2.2. Higher: They already had utensils for hunting, banned marriage among siblings, and family relationships were recognized exclusively through women.

1.2.3. Barbarism: Recognizable by the invention of agriculture and pottery, the prohibition of incest was extended to all female offspring, and the clan and village formed the basic units of organization.

1.2.4. Higher state of barbarism: When metallurgy was being developed, family relationships were traced by the male line, polygyny and private property appears

1.2.5. Civilization: When writing developed, the civil governmentand the monogamous couple as the basis of the family.

1.3. Historical particularism:

1.3.1. Franz Boas

1.3.1.1. Argued that each society is a collective representation of their own past.

1.3.2. Rejected the cultural evolutionary model

1.4. Diffusionism

1.4.1. Reaction to evolutism.

1.4.1.1. Proposes that cultures adopted their elements by imitation.

1.4.2. Cultural characteristics were diffused from one society to another

1.4.2.1. Voluntary or involuntary

1.4.3. Acculturation: understanding it as the exchange of cultural features, a result of continuous direct contact between two groups.

1.5. Functionalism is one of the major proposals that have been offered as solutions to the mind/body problem.

1.6. Functionalism

1.6.1. Bronislaw Malinowski

1.6.2. Radcliffe-Brown: added to the concept of function the place it occupied in the social structure the way society was organized as a whole.

1.6.3. Sociologist as Émile Durkheim made important researches since this particular way of seeing the culture.

1.7. Culture and personality

1.7.1. Sigmund Freud: linking cultural practices and beliefs of the individual with his personality and vice versa.

1.8. Neoevolutionism

1.8.1. Leslie White: the existence of a cultural evolution determined by the amount of energy that could be captured and put into execution by person.

1.8.2. Julian Steward: cultural ecology,learn both the differences and similarities of ancient and contemporary civilizations.

1.9. French structuralism

1.9.1. Levi-Strauss: uses an analogy to explain the origin of the differences and similarities among cultures: the crux lies in the existence of a general structure (symphony), an underlying pattern common to all cultures.

1.9.1.1. Tendency of the human mind to think in binary terms

1.9.2. Economic and political power of the nations that promote the study of societies are characteristics that determined the standards of civilization and barbarism

2. Topic 3

2.1. Nature and characteristics of culture

2.1.1. Mental rules to act and speak

2.1.1.1. Conceived in an specific society.

2.1.2. Understanding society as a group of people sharing a common habitat, who depend on each other for survival and welfare

2.1.3. Clases, subgroups and subcultures.

2.2. Cultural identity and society

2.3. Processes

2.3.1. Enculturation

2.3.1.1. The older generations transmits and induces new generations to adopt ways of thinking and behaving in a socially acceptable way

2.3.2. Ethnocentrism

2.3.2.1. It only recognizes as good and natural the patterns of our own behavior, and those who act differently are considered wild or inhuman.

2.3.3. Diffusionism

2.3.3.1. Scope of the transmission of cultural features, not only between generations, but from one society to another.

2.4. Universal pattern of cultures

2.4.1. Infrastructure: Composed of activities from an external and behavioral point of view, by which society meets its minimum requirements for subsistence and regulates demographic growth.

2.4.2. Structure: society is organized into groups that distribute and regulate goods and labor.

2.4.3. Superstructure: behavior devoted to artistic, recreational, intellectual and religious activities.

3. Topic 1

3.1. What is Anthropology?

3.1.1. An overall comprehensive science of man in the past and present of any culture.

3.2. Physical anthropology

3.2.1. Studies the physical characteristics of humans through the fossils found and the distinctive features of contemporary groups.

3.3. Archeology

3.3.1. Study of material remains of past cultures.

3.4. Anthropolical linguistics

3.4.1. Studies the diversity of languages ​​spoken by the existing human groups to know their origin and the relationship between the language and the development of human beings.

3.5. Cultural anthropology

3.5.1. It refers to the analysis and description of cultures, both from the past and from human groups of today. It includes the medical, urban, development, religión themes.

4. Topic 4

4.1. Family types

4.1.1. Nuclear: father, mother and children.

4.1.1.1. Vital functions: sexual relations, reproduction, education, subsistence.

4.1.2. Extended: besides the father, mother and children, the parents and siblings of each of the parents, as well as the children of the latter.

4.1.2.1. They can be polygonous.

4.1.3. Polygony: one man with several wives.

4.1.4. Polyandry: one woman with several husbands.

4.2. Symbology. genealogy and lineage through kinship

4.2.1. Marriage: is considered as the instrument that gives legitimacy to the offspring, giving the children born in it a position and rights different from children born out of it.

4.2.1.1. Exogamous marriage: The practice of marrying outside the individuals with which one is directly related.

4.3. Genealogy: research and documentation of these relationships among individuals of each family.

4.3.1. Symbol: kinship diagrams (family trees).

4.4. Myths: fulfill the aim of recreating the origins of human cultures.

4.4.1. elements of real events, they express the ideas of the group that creates them and allow them to locate in time and space of their current reality.

4.5. Magic: Based on the opposition between the natural and the supernatural, thus laying the foundation for the study of religión

4.6. Religion: Tylor proposes the idea of ​​God as the essence of this religious belief, and develops a concept of soul.

4.6.1. Soul: intangible and invisible being that coexists inside the human body.

4.6.2. Sacred: beliefs and rituals that create a relationship with the divine.

4.6.2.1. Profane: those ordinary events of everyday life.

4.6.3. Religious cults:

4.6.3.1. Individualist: any individual only following socially established instructions.

4.6.3.2. Shamanist: character who carries out their activity from time to time and who one resorts to at difficult times.

4.6.3.3. Community: individuals grouped by age or family of origin, and carry out activities to ensure the common good.

4.6.3.4. Ecclesiastic: performed by the clergy, usually associated with the ruling class of society.

5. Topic 5

5.1. Education and medicine

5.1.1. Medical anthropology: Study of social perceptions of disease, influence of culture in the diagnosis, health, attention and treatment problems.

5.1.2. The knowledge that anthropology can provide in this aspect is closely related to the beliefs of the human group in question.

5.2. Urban and business anthropology

5.2.1. Ethnographic techniques: study business scenarios, and to improve and diagnose faults in the production process of factories.

5.2.2. Etnographic techniques are starting to be used in market research.

5.3. Development and innovation

5.3.1. Economic development: examine the social conflicts and cultural dimension of that development.

5.3.2. Anthropologists is included in projects sponsored by international agencies to organize palliative attention to groups affected by the construction of infrastructure.

5.3.2.1. Prevent risk situations for people living in areas of conflict.