SOCIAL SCIENCES

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SOCIAL SCIENCES by Mind Map: SOCIAL SCIENCES

1. Anthropology the study of humankind

1.1. functionism the relationship of shared values between society and its institutions.

1.1.1. Robert k merton

1.1.1.1. functional orientation

1.1.1.1.1. long been implicit in biology and physiology, as well as in the social sciences of anthropology, economics, and sociology. Social scientists as diverse as Malthus, Spencer, Marx, Durkheim, and Weber have each engaged in describing the interrelationships between social phenomena

1.1.1.2. functional analysis

1.1.1.2.1. Robert K. Merton’s signal contribution to functionalism lies in his clarification and codification of functional analysis.

1.1.1.3. functional unity

1.1.1.3.1. Merton stated, "cannot be assumed; at most it is an empirical question to be determined by social research. Further, it is possible for some social or cultural items to have functions for some groups within a social system and not for others."

1.1.1.4. major theorem of functional analysis

1.1.1.4.1. An assumption of traditional functionalism is that all such prevalent activities and cultural elements have sociological functions and are therefore necessary for the maintenance of that system. Sociocultural systems may well have functional needs or prerequisites, Merton asserted, but these needs may be met by a diversity of forms. Calling it a “major theorem of functional analysis,”

1.1.1.5. attempted to clarify the concept of function by distinguishing latent and manifest functions.

1.1.1.5.1. Latent functions are those objective consequences of a cultural item which are neither intended nor recognized by the members of a society.

1.1.1.5.2. Manifest functions are those objective consequences contributing to the adjustment or adaptation of the system which are intended and recognized by participants in the system.

1.1.1.6. MertonsTheories:

1.1.1.6.1. Anomie theory (Strain theory)

1.1.1.6.2. Bureaucratic Personality

1.1.1.6.3. Sociology of science

1.1.1.6.4. Middle range theory

1.1.1.6.5. Focus groups

1.2. structuralism is the methodology that elements of human culture must be understood in terms of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.

1.2.1. claude levi strauss

1.2.1.1. widely regarded as the father of structural anthropology

1.2.1.2. proposed that the proper focus of anthropological investigations was on the underlying patterns of human thought that produce the cultural categories that organize worldviews hitherto studied.

1.2.1.3. His work was heavily influenced by Emile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss as well as the Prague School of structural linguistics (organized in 1926) which include Roman Jakobson (1896 to 1982), and Nikolai Troubetzkoy (1890 to 1938). From the latter, he derived the concept of binary contrasts, later referred to in his work as binary oppositions, which became fundamental in his theory.

1.2.1.3.1. binary contrasts

1.2.1.4. methodologies

1.2.1.4.1. Folk stories, religious stories, and fairy tales were the principle subject matter for structuralists because they believed these made manifest the underlying universal human structures, the binary oppositions.

1.2.1.5. believed immutable deep structures exist in all cultures, and consequently, that all cultural practices have homologous counterparts in other cultures, essentially that all cultures are equitable.

1.2.1.6. took many ideas from structural linguistics, including those of Ferdinand de Saussure, Roman Jakobson, Émile Durkheim and Marcel Mauss.

1.3. cultural materialism is a scientific research strategy that prioritizes material, behavioral and etic processes in the explanation of the evolution of human socio-cultural systems.

1.3.1. basic idea:

1.3.1.1. a scientific research strategy that prioritizes material, behavioral and etic processes in the explanation of the evolution of human socio-cultural systems. It was first introduced by Marvin Harris in The Rise of Anthropological Theory (1968).

1.3.2. Stephan sanderson

1.3.3. marvin harris

1.3.3.1. Harris is the originator of, and has remained the main figure in, cultural materialism. He insists that the primary task of anthropology is to give causal explanations for the differences and similarities in the thoughts and behaviors of human groups.

1.3.4. on marxism:

1.3.4.1. Cultural materialists are concerned with causality in socio-cultural systems and believe it may be sought through the study of the material constraints that human societies are subjected. Such constraints act on the need to produce food or shelter and to reproduce the population. These can be renamed as infrastructure. In that cultural materialists prioritize material constraints to explain socio-cultural systems, they are descendents of Marx, building on his notion of historical or dialectical materialism.

1.3.4.1.1. infrastructure: A) Mode of Production: the technology and the practices employed for expanding or limiting basic subsistence production, especially the production of food and other forms of energy. B) Mode of reproduction: the technology and the practices employed for expanding, limiting and maintaining population size.

2. Sociology is the scientific study of social behavior or society, including its origins, development, organization, networks, and institutions.

2.1. marxism

2.1.1. is a method of socioeconomic analysis, originating from the mid-to-late 19th century works of German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, that analyzes class relations and societal conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and a dialectical view of social transformation.

2.1.1.1. Karl Marx

2.1.1.2. Friedrich Engels

2.1.2. The Marxian analysis begins with an analysis of material conditions and the economic activities required to satisfy society's material needs.

2.1.3. understood that the form of economic organization, or mode of production, gives rise to, or at least directly influences, most other social phenomena – including social relations, political and legal systems, morality and ideology.

2.1.3.1. The economic system and these social relations form a base and superstructure.

2.1.3.1.1. infrastructure

2.1.3.1.2. superstructure

2.1.4. Karl Marx

2.1.4.1. Followers of Marx have frequently debated amongst themselves over how to interpret Marx's writings and apply his concepts to the modern world.[230] The legacy of Marx's thought has become contested between numerous tendencies, each of which sees itself as Marx's most accurate interpreter. In the political realm, these tendencies include Leninism, Marxism–Leninism, Trotskyism, Maoism, Luxemburgism, and libertarian Marxism.[

2.2. structional functionalism

2.2.1. Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability.

2.2.1.1. Herbert Spencer

2.2.1.1.1. a British philosopher famous for applying the theory of natural selection to society. He was in many ways the first true sociological functionalist.[16] In fact, while Durkheim is widely considered the most important functionalist among positivist theorists, it is well known that much of his analysis was culled from reading Spencer's work

2.2.1.2. Émile Durkheim

2.2.1.2.1. Durkheim argued that deviance is a normal and necessary part of any society because it contributes to the social order. He identified four specific functions that deviance fulfills:

2.2.2. Macro. The focus is macro-sociological, with institutions and structures existing in the society as a whole. This is the origin of the structure part of the structural functional approach.

2.2.3. Function. The different parts of each society contribute positively to the operation or functioning of the system as a whole. This is the functional part of the structural functional approach.

2.2.4. Interdependence and Equilibrium. Functionalism attempts to explain the relationship of different parts of the system to each other, and to the whole. These parts are usually work together in an orderly manner, without great conflict. The different parts are usually in equilibrium, or moving toward equilibrium, with consensus rather than conflict governing the inter-relationships of the various parts.

2.3. feminism

2.3.1. a range of political movements, ideologies and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve equal political, economic, cultural, personal, and social rights for women. This includes seeking to establish equal opportunities for women in education and employment.

2.3.1.1. Feminist theory is the extension of feminism into theoretical or philosophical discourse. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality. It examines women's social roles, experience, interests, chores, and feminist politics in a variety of fields, such as anthropology and sociology, communication, psychoanalysis,home economics, literature, education, and philosophy.

3. Psychology is the study of mind and behavior.

3.1. freud

3.1.1. psychoanalysis

3.1.1.1. Freud believed that people could be cured by making conscious their unconscious thoughts and motivations, thus gaining “insight”. The aim of psychoanalysis therapy is to release repressed emotions and experiences, i.e. make the unconscious conscious.

3.1.1.2. In psychoanalysis (therapy) Freud would have a patient lie on a couch to relax, and he would sit behind them taking notes while they told him about their dreams and childhood memories. Psychoanalysis would be a lengthy process, involving many sessions with the psychoanalyst.

3.1.1.3. various techniques were used as encouragement for the client to develop insights into their behavior and the meanings of symptoms, including ink blots, parapraxes, free association, interpretation (including dream analysis), resistance analysis and transference analysis.

3.1.1.3.1. Unconscious thoughts and feelings can transfer to the conscious mind in the form of parapraxes, popularly known as “Freudian slips” or slips of the tongue. We reveal what is really on our mind by saying something we didn’t mean to.

3.1.1.3.2. free association: A simple technique of psychodynamic therapy is free association in which a patient talks of whatever comes into their mind.

3.1.1.3.3. dream analysis: repressed ideas come to the surface though what we remember may well have been altered during the dream process.

3.1.2. psychosexual stages

3.1.2.1. As a person grows physically certain areas of their body become important as sources of potential frustration (erogenous zones), pleasure or both.

3.1.2.2. Freud believed that life was built round tension and pleasure. Freud also believed that all tension was due to the build up of libido (sexual energy) and that all pleasure came from its discharge.

3.1.2.3. stages:

3.1.2.3.1. oral

3.1.2.3.2. anal

3.1.2.3.3. phallic

3.1.2.3.4. latent

3.1.2.3.5. genital

3.1.3. defense mechsisms

3.1.3.1. repression

3.1.3.1.1. Repression is an unconscious mechanism employed by the ego to keep disturbing or threatening thoughts from becoming conscious.

3.1.3.2. denial

3.1.3.2.1. Denial involves blocking external events from awareness. If some situation is just too much to handle, the person just refuses to experience it.

3.1.3.3. projection

3.1.3.3.1. This involves individuals attributing their own thoughts, feeling and motives to another person. Thoughts most commonly projected onto another are the ones that would cause guilt such as aggressive and sexual fantasies or thoughts.

3.1.3.4. desplacement

3.1.3.4.1. Displacement is the redirection of an impulse (usually aggression) onto a powerless substitute target.

3.1.3.5. regression

3.1.3.5.1. This is a movement back in psychological time when one is faced with stress. When we are troubled or frightened, our behaviors often become more childish or primitive

3.1.3.6. sublimination

3.1.3.6.1. This is similar to displacement, but takes place when we manage to displace our emotions into a constructive rather than destructive activity

3.2. skinner

3.2.1. operant conditioning

3.2.1.1. studied operant conditioning by conducting experiments using animals which he placed in a 'Skinner Box' which was similar to Thorndike’s puzzle box.

3.2.1.2. the term operant conditioning means roughly changing of behavior by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response.

3.2.1.2.1. three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior.

3.2.2. positive reinfocement

3.2.2.1. Skinner showed how positive reinforcement worked by placing a hungry rat in his Skinner box. The box contained a lever on the side and as the rat moved about the box it would accidentally knock the lever. Immediately it did so a food pellet would drop into a container next to the lever. The rats quickly learned to go straight to the lever after a few times of being put in the box.

3.2.2.1.1. Positive reinforcement strengthens a behavior by providing a consequence an individual finds rewarding.

3.2.3. Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s law of effect. Skinner introduced a new term into the Law of Effect - Reinforcement. Behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated

3.2.4. Negative Reinforcement

3.2.4.1. The removal of an unpleasant reinforcer can also strengthen behavior. This is known as negative reinforcement because it is the removal of an adverse stimulus which is ‘rewarding’ to the animal or person. Negative reinforcement strengthens behavior because it stops or removes an unpleasant experience.

3.2.5. Punishment (weakens behavior)

3.2.5.1. Punishment is defined as the opposite of reinforcement since it is designed to weaken or eliminate a response rather than increase it. It is an aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows

3.3. erikson

3.3.1. explored 3 aspects of identity: the ego identity (self), personal identity (personal idiosyncrasies (distinguish people), social/cultural identity (collection of social rules)

3.3.2. believed every person must pass thrpugh a series of eight interrelated stages over an entire life cycle

3.3.2.1. infant (hope) basic trust vs. mistrust

3.3.2.2. toddler (will) autonomy vs. shame

3.3.2.3. preeschooler (purpose) initiative vs. guilt

3.3.2.4. school kids (competence) industry vs inferiority

3.3.2.5. adolescence (fidelity)- identity vs identity diffusion

3.3.2.6. young adult - (love) intimacy vs isolation

3.3.2.7. middle aged adult (care)- generativity vs self absorbance

3.3.2.8. older adult (wisdom)- integrity vs. despair