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How Genes Work by Mind Map: How Genes
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How Genes Work


Carry out traits through generations

Made of deoxyribonucleic acid

Don't carry out actual work

Service as instruction books for making functional molecules




Perform chemical reactions in our bodies

Consist of nucleotides that have been formed together

Single Stranded

Is Transcribed from DNA

temporary mediator between DNA the ribosomes

much shorter than DNA or the average protein

carries information from the genome to the ribosomes


Provide body's main building materials

the physical outcome of the information contained within the genome

vary greatly in their activity and they come in all shapes and sizes

Can't copy themselves

Uses instructions to copy itself coded in the DNA

Form Cells:


Structural Components


The sequence of a gene’s individual building blocks

Nucleotides are labeled:

A: Adenine

T: Thyme


G: Guanine


Spell out exact order of a protein's building blocks, These are called:, Amino Acids

Double Stranded: Double Helix


A kind of typographical error in a gene’s DNA sequence

Can be:, A Change, A Gap, A Duplication

Can cause a gene to encode a protein that works incorrectly or not at all

Not all DNA changes are harmful, Some have no effect, some produce new versions of proteins that give a survival advantage, Helps evolution persue

hard-copy of the genetic material

it is extremely important because during transcription, one gene (DNA) is rewritten into an RNA in the nucleus


Long strings of nucleotides of formed genes

Every cell contains chromosomes in its nucleus EXCEPT



Blood Cells

If the cells were uncoiled, it would be 6 feet long

If all DNA in your body were connected it would stretch 67 billion miles

Humans have 23 pairs

Women possess of X &X

Men possess X & Y

Diploid and Haploid Cells

Most of our cells are diploid

they have two sets of chromosomes, 23 pairs

Eggs and sperm are haploid cells

Each haploid cell has only one set of 23 chromosomes so that at fertilization the math will work out, A haploid egg cell will combine with a haploid sperm cell to form a diploid cell

Post Transcription

First step in making a protein

RNA polymerase transcribes DNA to make messenger RNA (mRNA).

On ribosomes, transfer RNA (tRNA) helps convert mRNA into protein

Amino acids link up to make a protein.

Special RNA

The gene transcript (the mRNA) transfers information from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes that make protein.

Ribosomal RNA forms about 60 percent of the ribosomes.

transfer RNA carries amino acids to the ribosomes.


the genetic material of humans and other eukaryotes (organisms that have a nucleus) includes a lot of DNA that doesn't encode proteins.

the cell needs to trim out the intron sections and then stitch only the exon pieces together . This process is called RNA splicing.

Splicing has to be extremely accurate.

An error in the splicing process, even one that results in the deletion of just one nucleotide in an exon or the of just one nucleotide in an intron, will throw the whole sequence out of alignment.

The result is usually an abnormal protein—or no protein at all.


The process by which introns are removed and exons are joined together from an RNA transcript to produce an mRNA molecule.

Arranging exons in different patterns, called alternative splicing, enables cells to make different proteins from a single gene.


Until recently, researchers looked at genes, and the proteins they encode, one at a time.

Now, they can look at how large numbers of genes and proteins act, as well as how they interact.

scientists can identify all of the genes that are transcribed in a cell

Researchers may be able to learn how to stop or jump-start genes on demand, change the course of a disease or prevent it from ever happening.


reading the RNA information and fitting the building blocks of a protein together.

its principal actors are the ribosome and amino acids.


short sequence of DNA

similar DNA sequences in the genes of different organisms

these genes do something so important and useful that evolution uses the same sequence over and over and permits very few changes in its structure as new species evolve.

Researchers quickly discovered nearly identical versions of homeobox DNA in almost every non-bacterial cell they examined—from yeast to plants, frogs, worms, beetles, chickens, mice and people.

Central Dogma

when DNA is transcribed to RNA which is translated to protein

Protein is never translated back into RNA or DNA; DNA is never directly translated to protein

DNA  RNA protein

Three Letter Sequence

Even though there are only three letters, the sequence of them completely changes the meaning

RAT - TAR - ART - same 3 letters; completely different meanings.


The same mRNA may be used hundreds of times during translation by many ribosomes before it is broken down by the cell.


Transfer RNA

important because it carries a specific amino acid at one end and recognizes and binds mRNA at the other end

The tRNA that binds to that mRNA codon determines what amino acid will be added to a protein


protein making factories which translate the genetic code into more proteins

Initiation and Stop Codons

All proteins start with the initiation codon

AUG All proteins end with stop codons -either UAA, UGA, or UAG.

Cells Nucleus

The nucleus is important because several things besides the holding of the DNA occur here.

Ribosomes are created in the nucleus in which they translate the genetic code into proteins.

Transcription also occurs in the cell's nucleus.