Chemistry

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Chemistry by Mind Map: Chemistry

1. Periodic Table

1.1. Classification of elements

1.1.1. Metals - on the left

1.1.2. Non metals - on the right

1.2. 5 Chemical familys

1.2.1. 1. Alkali Metals

1.2.2. 2. Alkaline Earth Metals

1.2.3. 3. Halogens

1.2.4. 4. Noble Gasses

1.2.5. 5. Transition Metals

1.3. Atomic Number / Mass

1.3.1. help with figuring out number of protons

2. Bohr Models

2.1. shows the way an element is structured

2.2. easy way to have drawn model of element

3. Types of Radiation

3.1. Gamma

3.1.1. strongest type of radiaton

3.1.2. transmutation does not occur during decay

3.2. Beta

3.2.1. stronger than alpha

3.2.2. transmutation occurs during decay

3.3. Alpha

3.3.1. weakest type of radiaton

3.3.2. transmutation occurs during decay

4. Half life

4.1. the average length of time for half of the parent nuclei in a sample to decay

5. Nuclear Reactions

5.1. Fission

5.1.1. large nucleus is split into two smaller nuclei

5.1.2. total mass of the products produced is smaller than the original mass

5.2. Fussion

5.2.1. two small nuclei are joined into one nucleus

6. Collision Theory

6.1. for a reaction to occur molecules need to be moving and collide to react

6.2. factors that affect reaction rates;

6.2.1. concentration of reactants

6.2.2. surface area of reactants

6.2.3. temperature

6.2.4. catalysts

7. Classifications of Acids, Bases, and Salts

7.1. Acids

7.1.1. release H+ ions in solution

7.1.2. conduct electricity

7.1.3. react with some metals to produce hydrogen gas

7.1.4. cause chemical indicators to change color

7.2. Bases

7.2.1. release OH- ions in solution

7.2.2. conduct electricity

7.2.3. do not react with metals to produce hydrogen gas

7.2.4. cause chemical indicators to change color

7.3. Salts

7.3.1. release "+" and "-" ions other than H+ and OH- in solution

7.3.2. conduct electricity

7.3.3. no effect on chemical indicators

7.3.4. do not react with metals to produce hydrogen

8. Bonding Types

8.1. Ionic Bonding

8.1.1. Ionic Compounds

8.1.1.1. strong-due to electrical attraction of opposite charges

8.1.1.2. form crystals

8.1.1.3. high melting points

8.1.1.4. very hard and brittle

8.1.1.5. conduct electricity when dissolved in water

8.1.2. Ionic Formulas

8.1.2.1. simple binary compounds

8.1.2.1.1. change ending to ide

8.1.2.1.2. no space between names

8.1.2.2. ionic compound where the first element has more than one combining capicity

8.1.2.2.1. use a roman numeral to tell the combining capicity

8.1.2.2.2. use criss-cross to find combining capicity

8.1.2.2.3. omit 1 in superscript

8.1.2.3. ionic compounds with polyatomic ions

8.1.2.3.1. do not change the ending if it is polyatomic

8.1.2.3.2. polyatomic ions are named as one

8.1.2.3.3. place bracket around a polyatomic ions

8.1.2.3.4. omit 1 in a superscript

8.1.2.3.5. use criss-cross to find superscript

8.2. Covalent Bonding

8.2.1. covalent componds

8.2.1.1. non metals share their valence electrons with other non metal to complete valence shells

8.2.1.2. form crystals

8.2.1.3. low melting and boiling points

8.2.1.4. poor conductor of electricity

8.2.2. covalent formulas

8.2.2.1. contains non metals only

8.2.2.2. use prefixes to identify the number of each element

8.2.2.3. only can omit mono foe the first element

8.2.2.4. do not crosover

8.3. Balancing equations

8.3.1. balance compounds first

8.3.2. balance one at a time

8.3.3. do not change subscripts only add subscripts

8.3.4. try to ballance O and H last if they apear more than once

8.3.5. try to balence polyatomic ions as a group

9. Reaction types

9.1. synthesis

9.1.1. two or more reactants form a compound

9.2. decompisition

9.2.1. a compound breaks into two or more products

9.3. single replacement

9.3.1. in a compound replace one element with a other one added as a reactant

9.4. double replacement

9.4.1. elements form compounds swap to form new compounds

9.5. combustion

9.5.1. a compound or element reacts with oxygen to create oxide and release energy

10. Law of Concervation of mass

10.1. mater is not created or lost in a chemical reaction

10.2. total mass of the reactants is the total mass of the products

11. Organic Compounds

11.1. hydrocarbons

11.1.1. flamable

11.1.2. most are liquid at room tempture

11.1.3. simple hydrocarbons

11.1.3.1. methane

11.1.3.2. ethane

11.1.3.3. butaine

11.1.3.4. pentane

11.1.4. contains only carbon and hydrogen

11.2. alcohols

11.2.1. good solvents

11.2.2. flamabel

11.2.3. simple alcohols

11.2.3.1. methanol

11.2.3.2. ethanol

11.2.3.3. isopropyl alcohol