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Identity by Mind Map: Identity

1. Changes in self-conception

2. Changes in self-esteem

3. Changes in the sense of identity

4. Possible selves

5. Future orientation

6. High self-esteem

7. Parental Approval

8. Peer support

9. Success in school

10. Identity Diffusion

11. Identity Foreclosure

12. Negative Identity

13. Self-consciousness

14. Self-image stability

15. Identity Crisis

16. Psychosocial moratorium

17. Ethnic Identity

18. Ethnic socialization

19. Immigrant paradox

20. Multidimensional model of racial identity (MMRI)

21. Multiethnic

22. Autonomy

23. Cognitive Autonomy

24. Logical foundation

25. Behavioral Autonomy

26. Emotional Autonomy

27. Adult-like relationships

28. Independent decisions

29. Independent set of values, opinions, and beliefs

30. Moral reasoning

31. Preconventional moral reasoning

32. Conventional moral reasoning

33. Postconventional moral reasoning

34. Prosocial behavior

35. Service learning

36. Religiosity

37. Spirituality

38. Civic engagement

39. Achievement

40. New social roles

41. Major decisions about school and work during adolescence

42. Underachievers

43. Self-handicapping

44. Mastery motivation

45. Performance motivation

46. Achievement attributions

47. Learned helplessness

48. Authoritative parenting with high expectations

49. Stereotype threat

50. Cultural capital

51. Social capital

52. School performance

53. Academic achievement

54. Educational attainment

55. Social promotion

56. Work values

57. Occupational attainment

58. "Adolescence is a time of gradual change in individuals' self image. For most, global self-esteem is quite stable during adolescence and, contrary to popular belief, increases slightly" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 253).

59. "Across all demographic groups, high self-esteem is related to parental approval, peer support, and success in school. Although it is difficult to disentangle cause and effect, high self-esteem is associated with better mental health, whereas low self-esteem is correlated with a number of emotional problems" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 253).

60. "Positive mental health among among minorities is associated with having a strong, positive ethnic identity and an awareness of the potential for discrimination, but not with outright rejection of the mainstream culture" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 268).

61. "Adolescents who are raised in authoritative homes in which their parents are both accepting and tolerant of the young person's individuality enjoy many psychological advantages over their peers, including a more fully developed sense of emotional autonomy" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 282).

62. "As individuals mature, they become better able to seek out and weigh the advice of individuals with different degrees of expertise and to use this information in making independent decisions" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 289).

63. "Involvement in community leads to gains in social responsibility, tolerance, and the importance individuals place on helping others" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 301).

64. "Achievement is an important issue during adolescence because society typically designates adolescence as a time for preparation for adult work roles, because individuals now can understand the long-term implications of their educational and career decisions, and because during adolescence schools begin making distinctions among individuals that potentially have profound effects on their long-term occupational development" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 374).

65. "Teachers can help improve their students'' achievement by creating environments that stress mastery over performance, by helping students attribute their successes and failures to how hard they work, and by stressing that intelligence is malleable rather than fixed" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 379).

66. "Socioeconomic status is an extremely powerful influence on educational achievement.. Generally, adolescents from higher social classes perform better in school and complete more years of schooling than do their less advantaged counterparts" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 395).