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Identity by Mind Map: Identity

1. Possible selves

2. Future orientation

3. Ethnic Identity

4. Ethnic socialization

5. Immigrant paradox

6. Multidimensional model of racial identity (MMRI)

7. Multiethnic

8. Autonomy

9. Cognitive Autonomy

10. Logical foundation

11. Behavioral Autonomy

12. Emotional Autonomy

13. Adult-like relationships

14. Independent decisions

15. Independent set of values, opinions, and beliefs

16. Moral reasoning

17. Preconventional moral reasoning

18. Conventional moral reasoning

19. Postconventional moral reasoning

20. Prosocial behavior

21. Service learning

22. Religiosity

23. Spirituality

24. Civic engagement

25. "Across all demographic groups, high self-esteem is related to parental approval, peer support, and success in school. Although it is difficult to disentangle cause and effect, high self-esteem is associated with better mental health, whereas low self-esteem is correlated with a number of emotional problems" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 253).

26. "Positive mental health among among minorities is associated with having a strong, positive ethnic identity and an awareness of the potential for discrimination, but not with outright rejection of the mainstream culture" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 268).

27. "Adolescents who are raised in authoritative homes in which their parents are both accepting and tolerant of the young person's individuality enjoy many psychological advantages over their peers, including a more fully developed sense of emotional autonomy" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 282).

28. "As individuals mature, they become better able to seek out and weigh the advice of individuals with different degrees of expertise and to use this information in making independent decisions" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 289).

29. "Involvement in community leads to gains in social responsibility, tolerance, and the importance individuals place on helping others" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 301).

30. Changes in self-conception

31. Changes in self-esteem

32. Changes in the sense of identity

33. High self-esteem

34. Parental Approval

35. Peer support

36. Success in school

37. Identity Diffusion

38. Identity Foreclosure

39. Negative Identity

40. Self-consciousness

41. Self-image stability

42. Identity Crisis

43. Psychosocial moratorium

44. Achievement

45. New social roles

46. Major decisions about school and work during adolescence

47. Underachievers

48. Self-handicapping

49. Mastery motivation

50. Performance motivation

51. Achievement attributions

52. Learned helplessness

53. Authoritative parenting with high expectations

54. Stereotype threat

55. Cultural capital

56. Social capital

57. School performance

58. Academic achievement

59. Educational attainment

60. Social promotion

61. Work values

62. Occupational attainment

63. "Adolescence is a time of gradual change in individuals' self image. For most, global self-esteem is quite stable during adolescence and, contrary to popular belief, increases slightly" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 253).

64. "Achievement is an important issue during adolescence because society typically designates adolescence as a time for preparation for adult work roles, because individuals now can understand the long-term implications of their educational and career decisions, and because during adolescence schools begin making distinctions among individuals that potentially have profound effects on their long-term occupational development" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 374).

65. "Teachers can help improve their students'' achievement by creating environments that stress mastery over performance, by helping students attribute their successes and failures to how hard they work, and by stressing that intelligence is malleable rather than fixed" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 379).

66. "Socioeconomic status is an extremely powerful influence on educational achievement.. Generally, adolescents from higher social classes perform better in school and complete more years of schooling than do their less advantaged counterparts" (Steinberg, Adolescence, 395).