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Matter by Mind Map: Matter

1. states

1.1. solids

1.1.1. particles close together Particles stay in one place and just vibrate-not much energy

1.2. liquids

1.2.1. Particles further apart. Particles move quite a bit (randomly). They'll fill all the volume there is -more energy than solids.

1.3. gases

1.3.1. Particles a long way apart. Particles move lots. They'll fill all the volume there is -lots of energy

2. state changes

2.1. melting

2.1.1. solid to liquid

2.2. evaporating

2.2.1. liquid to gas

2.3. boiling

2.3.1. liquid to gas but when most particles have enough energy to do it.

2.4. subliming

2.4.1. solid to gas (iodine does this and so does dry ice).

2.5. condensing

2.5.1. gas to liquid

2.6. freezing

2.6.1. liquid to solid

3. properties

3.1. Things that matter is or has.

3.1.1. colour

3.1.2. temperature The average kinetic (movement) energy of the particles.

3.1.3. volume How much space it takes up.

3.1.4. density How many particles (mass) there are in a certain space.

3.1.5. melting point At what temperature does it turn to a liquid.

3.1.6. boiling point At what temperature does it turn to a gas.

3.1.7. conductivity Is it a good conductor of heat or electricity?

4. types

4.1. pure substance

4.1.1. elements Contain only the one sort of atom. atoms periodic table non metals -top right metals -left side element symbols -you must learn the ones you're supposed to know.

4.1.2. compounds Made of different sorts of atoms that have joined in set numbers. Hard to get back the different kinds of atoms.

4.2. mixtures

4.2.1. Contain more than one substance.

4.2.2. The different substances haven't joined up.

4.2.3. Easy to separate out the different substances. filtration Separating a liquid from a solid that's sitting in it. decanting Pouring something from off the top of another substance. evaporation Letting the water evaporate away from something that's dissolved in it. distillation Separating liquids with different boiling points. centrifuging Spinning something very fast-heavy particles thrown to the botton. magnetism Using a magnet to pick up iron from other stuff that's not magnetic.

5. liquids

5.1. solutions

5.1.1. When one thing dissolves in another. solvent-does the dissolving. solute-what dissolves. saturated No more solute will dissolve. concentrated (strong) Lots of solute and not much solvent. dilute (weak) Lots of solvent and not much solute.

5.2. suspensions

5.2.1. When something doesn't dissolves but just hangs there e.g.mud in water.

5.3. miscible (mixable)-when two liquids and mix in with each other e.g. meths and water

5.4. immiscible

5.4.1. Liquids that won't mix together e.g. oil and water.