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1. Institutional procedures

1.1. Legal documents

1.2. Scientific report

2. Universal truths

3. Position: at the end of a sentence

4. To depersonalise a text

5. Genre

6. If a verb takes an object as well as a subjetc, it can be changed from active to passive.

6.1. Eg: She sold the cart

6.2. Eg: He kept the pictures

6.2.1. The subject matter of the sentence

7. Estate agent's blurb

7.1. To flag new information

8. To ommit elements

9. Tabloid newspaper article

10. Question-Answer

10.1. It's incredible, ins´t it?

10.1.1. To highlight contrast

11. Information text

11.1. Different semantic fields are woven together to foreground an idea.

11.2. The nature of things

11.3. How thing are

12. Indefinite articles (eg. a)

13. Immediate physical environment

14. Lexical Cohesion

14.1. The effect sb wants to create/structure.

14.2. Homophones

14.2.1. Same pronunciation, different meaning.

14.2.2. Eg bear/bare meet/meat flour/flower pail/pale right/write sew/so to/two/too

14.3. Word families

14.3.1. exit, transit, transition

14.4. Lexical Relations

14.4.1. Synonymys A word that has many meanings. Words with almost the same meaning

14.4.2. Near-synonyms Saving, investment

14.4.3. Antonymys Gradable opposite meaning (hot-cold) Non gradable Conversives Reversives "the opposite of..." - "do the reverse of..."

14.4.4. Hyponymy 'a Kind of relationship' (reliable). Superordinate Co-hyponyms

14.4.5. Prototype Resemblance (Subjective).

14.4.6. Homonyms (Unrelated) One word (written/spoken) has two or more meanings. Eg bat mole pen

14.4.7. run person does sole single part of foot or shoe water does colors do

14.4.8. Polysemy Two or more words with the same form and related meanings race contest of speed ethnic group Eg foot mouth

14.4.9. Word Play Humor

14.4.10. Metonomy Actions and events Eg: situation, process, way. Relation of contiguity. Container - Content Whole - Part Representative - Symbol

14.5. Lexical Devices

14.5.1. Direct repetition

14.5.2. Nominalization Ideas and toughts Eg: idea, theory, viewpoint.

14.5.3. Semantic field, lexical chains, lists.

14.5.4. Collocation Ocurring together E.g: I don't know what to do

14.5.5. Foregrounding Draw attention to something and make the reader view it in a certain way.

14.5.6. Level of formality Varies according to Group of writers / members of an occupational group The audience Writer-reader relationship Purpose What has been said or written Eg: explanation, criticism, proposal, suggestion, etc. At the level of vocabulary

15. Grammatical Cohesion

15.1. Substitution

15.2. Ellipsis

15.3. Pronouns

15.3.1. Personal Subject Object (Me - You - Us - Them - Him - Her - It)

15.3.2. Demonstrative That Has the effect of distancing the writer from the topic. These and Those This Draws attention to new or important topic. Can refer both back and forward in a text

15.3.3. Possesive Mine - Yours - His - Hers - Its - Ours - Theirs Back reference only.

15.3.4. Reflexive Myself - Yourself - Ourselves - Themselves - Himself - Herself - Itself.

15.4. E.g: "A boy was walking..."

15.5. Reference outside the text.

15.6. Reference

15.6.1. Articles "My book". Definite articles (eg. the) Make connections (back, forward, outside the text) We know the schema. A previous mention of a noun Use in superlatives, defining relative clauses Indefinite article a/an to refer to something for the first time It has a mention before or after in the text. Zero in plural or uncountable nouns General things

15.6.2. Possessive Adjetives

15.6.3. It may be Exophoric A lot can be left unsaid

15.6.4. Other referents Text Visual information

15.7. Conjuncts (linkers)

15.7.1. Categories (logical relation) Additive Eg: also, too, as well, moreover, what's more, in addition, for example, likewise, similarly Adversative Eg: but, though, however, on the other hand, in fact, alternatively, in spite of that Demonstrative reference (Deictics) Causal Eg: this is why, so, therefore, as a result Shared cultural knowledge (shema, or sth unique like "sun", "moon"). Temporal Eg: next, then, finally, in the meantime, ever since, first, to begin with, lastly

15.7.2. Eg: what's even better

15.7.3. Endophoric Anaphoric Back-reference Cataphoric to anticipate the referent

15.7.4. Syntactic constraints

15.7.5. Stylistic Very formal Eg: notwithstanding, whereupon Relatively informal Eg: still, what's more Spoken language

15.8. Comparatives

15.8.1. Quantity and number Eg: more, fewer, less, another

15.8.2. Possible to omit the reference point

15.8.3. -est Eg: talles, nicest, healthiest

15.8.4. -er Spoken Eg: taller, nicer, healthier

15.9. Verbs

15.9.1. Tense The effect it cause/why? Past Genre To look elsewhere for information, with a particular aim in mind - to compare Present Genre

15.9.2. Voice Passive A veneer of neutrality To focus on the process itself Active

15.10. Theme

15.10.1. Position: first part of a sentence

15.10.2. Cf: Focus

16. Rhetorical Cohesion

16.1. Menu

16.2. Parallelism

16.3. Characterize the meaning of a word in terms of its relation to other words.

16.3.1. The way on how sentences are connected each other (also context).

17. Semantic roles

17.1. Agent

17.2. Theme

17.3. Instrument

17.4. Experiencer

17.5. Advert

17.6. Location

17.7. Source

17.8. Goal

18. Genres

18.1. Epitaph

18.2. Set of instructions