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COHESION by Mind Map: COHESION

1. Institutional procedures

1.1. Legal documents

1.2. Scientific report

2. Universal truths

3. Position: at the end of a sentence

4. To depersonalise a text

5. Genre

6. If a verb takes an object as well as a subjetc, it can be changed from active to passive.

6.1. Eg: She sold the cart

6.2. Eg: He kept the pictures

6.2.1. The subject matter of the sentence

7. Estate agent's blurb

7.1. To flag new information

8. To ommit elements

9. Tabloid newspaper article

10. Question-Answer

10.1. It's incredible, ins´t it?

10.1.1. To highlight contrast

11. Information text

11.1. Different semantic fields are woven together to foreground an idea.

11.2. The nature of things

11.3. How thing are

12. Indefinite articles (eg. a)

13. Immediate physical environment

14. Lexical Cohesion

14.1. The effect sb wants to create/structure.

14.2. Homophones

14.2.1. Same pronunciation, different meaning.

14.2.2. Eg

14.2.2.1. bear/bare

14.2.2.2. meet/meat

14.2.2.3. flour/flower

14.2.2.4. pail/pale

14.2.2.5. right/write

14.2.2.6. sew/so

14.2.2.7. to/two/too

14.3. Word families

14.3.1. exit, transit, transition

14.4. Lexical Relations

14.4.1. Synonymys

14.4.1.1. A word that has many meanings.

14.4.1.2. Words with almost the same meaning

14.4.2. Near-synonyms

14.4.2.1. Saving, investment

14.4.3. Antonymys

14.4.3.1. Gradable

14.4.3.1.1. opposite meaning (hot-cold)

14.4.3.2. Non gradable

14.4.3.2.1. Conversives

14.4.3.3. Reversives

14.4.3.3.1. "the opposite of..." - "do the reverse of..."

14.4.4. Hyponymy

14.4.4.1. 'a Kind of relationship' (reliable).

14.4.4.2. Superordinate

14.4.4.3. Co-hyponyms

14.4.5. Prototype

14.4.5.1. Resemblance (Subjective).

14.4.6. Homonyms

14.4.6.1. (Unrelated) One word (written/spoken) has two or more meanings.

14.4.6.2. Eg

14.4.6.2.1. bat

14.4.6.2.2. mole

14.4.6.2.3. pen

14.4.7. run

14.4.7.1. person does

14.4.7.2. sole

14.4.7.2.1. single

14.4.7.2.2. part of foot or shoe

14.4.7.3. water does

14.4.7.4. colors do

14.4.8. Polysemy

14.4.8.1. Two or more words with the same form and related meanings

14.4.8.2. race

14.4.8.2.1. contest of speed

14.4.8.2.2. ethnic group

14.4.8.3. Eg

14.4.8.3.1. foot

14.4.8.3.2. mouth

14.4.9. Word Play

14.4.9.1. Humor

14.4.10. Metonomy

14.4.10.1. Actions and events

14.4.10.1.1. Eg: situation, process, way.

14.4.10.2. Relation of contiguity.

14.4.10.2.1. Container - Content

14.4.10.2.2. Whole - Part

14.4.10.2.3. Representative - Symbol

14.5. Lexical Devices

14.5.1. Direct repetition

14.5.2. Nominalization

14.5.2.1. Ideas and toughts

14.5.2.1.1. Eg: idea, theory, viewpoint.

14.5.3. Semantic field, lexical chains, lists.

14.5.4. Collocation

14.5.4.1. Ocurring together

14.5.4.1.1. E.g: I don't know what to do

14.5.5. Foregrounding

14.5.5.1. Draw attention to something and make the reader view it in a certain way.

14.5.6. Level of formality

14.5.6.1. Varies according to

14.5.6.1.1. Group of writers / members of an occupational group

14.5.6.1.2. The audience

14.5.6.1.3. Writer-reader relationship

14.5.6.1.4. Purpose

14.5.6.2. What has been said or written

14.5.6.2.1. Eg: explanation, criticism, proposal, suggestion, etc.

14.5.6.3. At the level of vocabulary

15. Grammatical Cohesion

15.1. Substitution

15.2. Ellipsis

15.3. Pronouns

15.3.1. Personal

15.3.1.1. Subject

15.3.1.2. Object

15.3.1.2.1. (Me - You - Us - Them - Him - Her - It)

15.3.2. Demonstrative

15.3.2.1. That

15.3.2.1.1. Has the effect of distancing the writer from the topic.

15.3.2.1.2. These and Those

15.3.2.2. This

15.3.2.2.1. Draws attention to new or important topic.

15.3.2.2.2. Can refer both back and forward in a text

15.3.3. Possesive

15.3.3.1. Mine - Yours - His - Hers - Its - Ours - Theirs

15.3.3.2. Back reference only.

15.3.4. Reflexive

15.3.4.1. Myself - Yourself - Ourselves - Themselves - Himself - Herself - Itself.

15.4. E.g: "A boy was walking..."

15.5. Reference outside the text.

15.6. Reference

15.6.1. Articles

15.6.1.1. "My book".

15.6.1.2. Definite articles (eg. the)

15.6.1.2.1. Make connections (back, forward, outside the text)

15.6.1.2.2. We know the schema.

15.6.1.2.3. A previous mention of a noun

15.6.1.2.4. Use in superlatives, defining relative clauses

15.6.1.3. Indefinite article a/an

15.6.1.3.1. to refer to something for the first time

15.6.1.4. It has a mention before or after in the text.

15.6.1.5. Zero

15.6.1.5.1. in plural or uncountable nouns

15.6.1.5.2. General things

15.6.2. Possessive Adjetives

15.6.3. It may be

15.6.3.1. Exophoric

15.6.3.1.1. A lot can be left unsaid

15.6.4. Other referents

15.6.4.1. Text

15.6.4.1.1. Visual information

15.7. Conjuncts (linkers)

15.7.1. Categories (logical relation)

15.7.1.1. Additive

15.7.1.1.1. Eg: also, too, as well, moreover, what's more, in addition, for example, likewise, similarly

15.7.1.2. Adversative

15.7.1.2.1. Eg: but, though, however, on the other hand, in fact, alternatively, in spite of that

15.7.1.2.2. Demonstrative reference (Deictics)

15.7.1.3. Causal

15.7.1.3.1. Eg: this is why, so, therefore, as a result

15.7.1.4. Shared cultural knowledge (shema, or sth unique like "sun", "moon").

15.7.1.5. Temporal

15.7.1.5.1. Eg: next, then, finally, in the meantime, ever since, first, to begin with, lastly

15.7.2. Eg: what's even better

15.7.3. Endophoric

15.7.3.1. Anaphoric

15.7.3.1.1. Back-reference

15.7.3.2. Cataphoric

15.7.3.2.1. to anticipate the referent

15.7.4. Syntactic constraints

15.7.5. Stylistic

15.7.5.1. Very formal

15.7.5.1.1. Eg: notwithstanding, whereupon

15.7.5.2. Relatively informal

15.7.5.2.1. Eg: still, what's more

15.7.5.3. Spoken language

15.8. Comparatives

15.8.1. Quantity and number

15.8.1.1. Eg: more, fewer, less, another

15.8.2. Possible to omit the reference point

15.8.3. -est

15.8.3.1. Eg: talles, nicest, healthiest

15.8.4. -er

15.8.4.1. Spoken

15.8.4.2. Eg: taller, nicer, healthier

15.9. Verbs

15.9.1. Tense

15.9.1.1. The effect it cause/why?

15.9.1.2. Past

15.9.1.2.1. Genre

15.9.1.2.2. To look elsewhere for information, with a particular aim in mind - to compare

15.9.1.3. Present

15.9.1.3.1. Genre

15.9.2. Voice

15.9.2.1. Passive

15.9.2.1.1. A veneer of neutrality

15.9.2.1.2. To focus on the process itself

15.9.2.2. Active

15.10. Theme

15.10.1. Position: first part of a sentence

15.10.2. Cf: Focus

16. Rhetorical Cohesion

16.1. Menu

16.2. Parallelism

16.3. Characterize the meaning of a word in terms of its relation to other words.

16.3.1. The way on how sentences are connected each other (also context).

17. Semantic roles

17.1. Agent

17.2. Theme

17.3. Instrument

17.4. Experiencer

17.5. Advert

17.6. Location

17.7. Source

17.8. Goal

18. Genres

18.1. Epitaph

18.2. Set of instructions