Grounded Theory Method

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Grounded Theory Method by Mind Map: Grounded Theory Method

1. Major works of Classical Grounded theory

1.1. The Discovery of Grounded Theory

1.2. Theoretical Sensitivity

1.3. Doing Grounded Theory

1.3.1. Ch1. Doing Grounded Theory:Issues and Discussions

1.3.1.1. General Properties of Grounded theories

1.3.1.1.1. not findings

1.3.1.1.2. systematic generation of theory from data acquired by a rigorous research method

1.3.1.1.3. integrated set of conceptual hypotheses

1.3.1.2. Minus Mentoring

1.3.1.2.1. Phyllis Stern

1.3.1.2.2. Researchers working where there is no one to train them in the method.

1.3.1.2.3. There are ways of working around this, online, email, physical workshops

1.3.1.2.4. Not always a bad thing and some are more suited to this type of independence

1.3.1.3. All is Data

1.3.1.3.1. No particular type of data is sanctified, objective or valid

1.3.1.3.2. preconceiving what data will be used for a study severely restricts the generative aspect of the study and consequently the theory.

1.3.1.3.3. Four types of Data: from factual descriptions to airy ungrounded conceptualizations.

1.3.1.3.4. analysis of secondary can be productive

1.3.1.3.5. Self-interveiw

1.3.1.4. Collaboration

1.3.1.4.1. GT ideally suited for collaboration

1.3.1.4.2. Collaborators should write separately and then re-write each other's work

1.3.1.4.3. Conflicts during collaboration can yield other properties of the categories

1.3.1.5. Qualitative and Quantitative data

1.3.1.5.1. Once the theory explains what is going on other research may be done to test hypotheses.

1.3.1.5.2. Even in strictly quantitative research there qualitative components in the interpretation

1.3.1.6. Grounded Theory fits with a natural human inclination to figure out hypotheses as to what is going on in our lives

1.3.1.7. Grounded theory is a package "Doing" can be used as a manual

1.3.1.7.1. A revolving step p process

1.3.1.7.2. Nothing left to chance

1.3.1.7.3. continually empowers the researcher conceptually and perceptually

1.3.1.7.4. For all it's rigor GT is designed to bring out the researcher's autonomy, discovery-a personal recipe

1.3.1.7.5. Learning GT takes about a year- delayed action curve-look for a eureka moment

1.3.1.7.6. 5 "S"s= susequent, sequential, simultaneous, serendipitous and scheduled

1.3.1.7.7. The product legitimizes the process

1.3.2. Ch.2 The Roots of Grounded Theory

1.3.2.1. University of Chicago

1.3.2.2. Columbian University

1.3.2.3. Awareness of Dying

1.3.2.3.1. Grounded Theory of Awareness contexts

1.3.3. Ch.3 The Rhetorical Wrestle

1.3.4. Ch. 4 Motivation

1.3.5. Ch. 5 Reading the Literature

1.3.6. Ch. 6 Forcing the Data

1.3.7. Ch. 7 Taping

1.3.7.1. Don't do it

1.3.7.2. Taping undermines the power of GT to delimit the research as quickly as possible in the process.

1.3.7.3. Forestalls theoretical sampling

1.3.7.4. Slows progress and leads to data doubts

1.3.7.5. Interferes with creativity and skill development

1.3.7.6. Instead develop the necessary skills to take field notes.

1.3.7.7. GT uses incidents in field notes as illustrations of categories and their properties rather than as evidence of findings.

1.3.8. Ch. 8 The Problem

1.3.8.1. The problem (main concern) is the prime organizational feature of a GT

1.3.8.2. The main concern of participants and how they continually resolve their problem explains most of their behavior

1.3.8.3. Strategies use in the resolution of main concern leads to core category

1.3.9. Ch.9 Generating Concepts

1.3.9.1. The license to conceptualize

1.3.9.2. Conceptual Levels

1.3.9.2.1. Categories

1.3.9.2.2. Properties

1.3.10. Ch.10 Theoretical Sampling

1.3.11. Ch.11 Theoretical Coding

1.3.11.1. Helen: Codes maybe descriptive or conceptual. A descriptive code may also be conceptual. A conceptal code will be completely conceptual and not descriptive

1.3.12. Ch.12 Memoing

1.3.13. Ch.13 Sorting

1.3.14. Ch. 14 Writing

1.3.15. Ch.15 Learning Grounded Theory

1.3.16. Ch. 16 Trusting Grounded Theory

1.4. Grounded Theory: The Philosophy, Method, and Work of Barney Glaser

1.4.1. Part I Teaching Grounded Theory

1.4.1.1. Simmons, Why classic grounded theory?

1.4.1.2. Gynnild, Atmosphering for conceptual discovery

1.4.1.3. Guthrie, Getting through the Phd process using GT: A supervisor-researcher perspective

1.4.1.4. McCallin, Learning methodology minus mentoring

1.4.2. Part II: Doing Grounded Theory

1.4.2.1. Scott, Conducting grounded theory interviews online

1.4.2.2. Nilsson, Methods in grounded theory research

1.4.2.3. Hernandez, Developing grounded theory using focus groups

1.4.2.4. Thomas, The utility and efficacy of qualitative research software in grounded theory research

1.4.2.5. Thulesius, De-tabooing dying in western society:From awareness to control in the dying situation

1.4.2.6. Tarozzi, On translating grounded theory when translating is doing

1.4.3. Part III: Historical and Philosophical Grounding

1.4.3.1. Charmaz, Lessons for a lifetime: Learning grounded theory from Barney Glaser

1.4.3.2. Nathaniel, An integrated philosophical framework that fits grounded theory

1.4.3.2.1. What is so good about an integrated philosophical framework?

1.4.3.3. Holton, The autonomous creativity of Barney G Glaser: Early influences in the emergence of classic grounded theory methodology

1.4.3.4. Emeritus, Grounded Glasser

1.4.3.5. Gynnild: Living the idea: A biographical interview with Barney G Glaser

1.4.4. Part IV: Advancing Grounded Theory

1.4.4.1. Glaser, Generating formal theory

1.4.4.2. Andrews, Reflections on generating a formal grounded theory

1.4.4.3. Rosenbaum, From theoretical generation to verification of theory using structural equation modeling

1.4.4.4. Martin, The power of an enduring concept

2. Method

2.1. substantive area

2.1.1. considerations

2.1.1.1. access

2.1.1.2. sufficient life cycle interest

2.1.1.3. area vs problem

2.2. Types of Data

2.2.1. Baseline

2.2.2. properline

2.2.3. interpreted

2.2.4. vague

2.3. Data sources

2.3.1. first hand formal interview

2.3.1.1. Field notes, no transcription

2.3.1.2. avoid worrisome accuracy

2.3.2. Archival material

2.3.3. focus group

2.3.4. personal journal

2.3.5. Observational Data

2.3.5.1. Indirect

2.3.5.1.1. emergent structure

2.3.6. Edited book

2.3.6.1. Jargonizing

2.4. Purpose

2.4.1. generate theory

2.4.2. explain what is really going on in an action scene

2.4.3. account for the most variation in the observed data

2.4.4. develop a parsimonious theory with scope

2.4.5. Validity of Grounded theories

2.4.5.1. Fit

2.4.5.1.1. Work

2.4.5.2. Grab

2.4.5.3. Modifiability

2.4.5.4. Generalizability

2.5. GT Workflow

2.5.1. Sequential: What is done next?

2.5.2. Subsequent: What is to be done later?

2.5.3. Simultaneous: Many activities at once, collecting, coding, analyzing, memoing, sorting and writing

2.5.4. Scheduled: subject to practicalities and life

2.5.5. Serendipitous: Staying open to surprise realizations

2.5.6. The package

2.5.6.1. Collecting

2.5.6.1.1. Theoretical Sampling

2.5.6.1.2. Constant comparison

2.5.6.2. Coding

2.5.6.2.1. Incidents

2.5.6.2.2. In vivo codes

2.5.6.2.3. Code families

2.5.6.2.4. Explication de text

2.5.6.2.5. Interchangeability of indicies

2.5.6.2.6. Substantive Coding

2.5.6.3. Memoing

2.5.6.4. Sorting

2.5.6.5. Writing up

2.6. Stages of GT process, Odis Simmons

2.6.1. Stage 1 Preparation:

2.6.2. Stage 2: Data Collection

2.6.3. Stage 3: Constant Comparative Analysis

2.6.4. Stage 4: Memoing

2.6.5. Stage 5:Theoretical sorting

2.6.6. Stage 6 :Writing the theory

2.7. Saldana's Coding protocols

2.7.1. First Cycle Coding methods

2.7.1.1. Coding methods Profiles

2.7.1.1.1. Gramatical methods

2.7.1.1.2. Elemental methods

2.7.1.1.3. Affective Methods

2.7.1.1.4. Literary and Language Methods

2.7.1.1.5. Exploratory Methods

2.7.1.1.6. Procedural Methods

2.7.1.1.7. Theming the data

2.7.2. Second Cycle Coding Methods

2.7.2.1. Pattern Coding

2.7.2.2. Focused coding

2.7.2.3. Axial coding

2.7.2.4. Theoretical coding

2.7.2.5. Elaborative coding

2.7.2.6. Longitudinal coding

3. Qualitative Methods

3.1. Ethnography

3.2. Case Study

3.3. Collaborative Inquiry

3.4. Narrative Research

3.5. Phenomenology

3.6. Grounded theory

4. Quantitative Methods

4.1. Evidence Based Research

4.2. Double Blind

4.3. Grounded Theory

5. Theoretical Reasoning

5.1. Classes

5.1.1. Deductive

5.1.2. Inductive

5.1.3. Abductive

5.1.3.1. Charles Peirce

5.1.3.1.1. According to Pierces Idea of Precission, absolutes

5.1.3.2. Jo Riechertz, Abductive reasoning in GT

5.2. Processes

5.3. Logical Fallacies

5.3.1. Logical fallacies from Stephen Downes (linked url has examples of each)

5.3.1.1. Fallacies of Distraction

5.3.1.1.1. False dilemma

5.3.1.1.2. From ignorance

5.3.1.1.3. Slippery Slope

5.3.1.1.4. Complex question

5.3.1.2. Appeals to motives in place of support

5.3.1.2.1. Appeal to force

5.3.1.2.2. Appeal to pity

5.3.1.2.3. Consequences

5.3.1.2.4. prejudicial disadvantage

5.3.1.2.5. Popularity

5.3.1.3. Changing the subject

5.3.1.3.1. Attacking the person

5.3.1.3.2. appeal to authority

5.3.1.3.3. Anonymous authority

5.3.1.3.4. Style over substance

5.3.1.4. inductive fallacies

5.3.1.4.1. Hasty generalization

5.3.1.4.2. unrepresentative sample

5.3.1.4.3. false analogy

5.3.1.4.4. slothful induction

5.3.1.4.5. fallacy of exclusion

5.3.1.5. Fallacies involving statistical syllogisms

5.3.1.5.1. Acident

5.3.1.5.2. converse accident

5.3.1.6. Causal fallacies

5.3.1.6.1. Post hoc

5.3.1.6.2. joint effect

5.3.1.6.3. insignificant

5.3.1.6.4. wrong direction

5.3.1.6.5. complex cause

5.3.1.7. Missing the point

5.3.1.7.1. begging the question

5.3.1.7.2. irrelevant conclusion

5.3.1.7.3. straw man

5.3.1.8. Fallacy of ambiquity

5.3.1.8.1. equivocation

5.3.1.8.2. amphiboly

5.3.1.8.3. accent

5.3.1.9. Category errors

5.3.1.9.1. Composition

5.3.1.9.2. Division

5.3.1.10. non sequitur

5.3.1.10.1. affirming the consequent

5.3.1.10.2. denying the antecedent

5.3.1.10.3. inconsistency

5.3.1.11. Syllogistic errors

5.3.1.11.1. Fallacy of four terms

5.3.1.11.2. undistributed middle

5.3.1.11.3. illicit major

5.3.1.11.4. illicit minor

5.3.1.11.5. fallacy of exclusive premises

5.3.1.11.6. fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion from a negative premise

5.3.1.11.7. Existential fallacy

5.3.1.12. Fallacies of explanation

5.3.1.12.1. Subverted support

5.3.1.12.2. non-support

5.3.1.12.3. untestability

5.3.1.12.4. Limited scope

5.3.1.12.5. Limited depth

5.3.1.13. Fallacies of definition

5.3.1.13.1. Too broad

5.3.1.13.2. Too narrow

5.3.1.13.3. Failure to elucidate

5.3.1.13.4. Circular definition

5.3.1.13.5. Conflicting conditions

6. Basic Social Processes

7. Action Oriented

7.1. Participative

7.2. Appreciative Inquiry

7.3. Action Science

7.4. Grounded Action

8. Systems Theory

8.1. Action Science

8.2. Dr. Russell Ackoff video re- systems thinking. Uses synthesis rather than analysis. Three steps to synthesis contrasted with analysis

8.2.1. The first step of analysis is taking a system apart. The first step of synthesis is asking "what is this system a part of?" If you want to understand an automobile you have to understand that it is a part of the transportation system.

8.2.1.1. If you take a system apart it looses its functionality and there by you lose the ability to explain it. The motor is necessary but not sufficient. When you remove it from the car it just sits there.

8.2.2. The second step of analysis is to try to explain the behavior of the parts taken separately. The second step of synthesis is to try to explain the behavior of the larger containing system.

8.2.3. Third step of synthesis is to aggregate an understanding of the parts into an understanding of the whole. In the third step of synthesis you dis-aggregate the understanding of the containing whole by identifying the role or function of what it is you are trying to explain.

9. Issues for Grounded Theory Dissertations

9.1. Concept Paper

9.2. Literature Review

9.3. IRB

9.4. Data collection

9.5. Aligning

9.6. Research Question

9.6.1. not the Grand Tour Question

9.6.2. Questions asked of the data

9.6.2.1. What category or property of a category does this incident indicate?

9.6.2.2. What is the data a study of?

9.6.2.3. What category does this incident indicate?

9.6.2.4. What is actually happening in the data?

10. GT Developers

10.1. Glaser and Strauss

10.1.1. Barney Glaser

10.1.1.1. Judith Holton

10.1.1.2. Constant Comparative Analysis 1965

10.1.1.3. Odis Simmons

10.1.1.4. Phyllis Norager-Stern

10.1.2. Anselm Straus

10.1.2.1. Anselm Strauss and Juliette Corbin

10.1.2.2. Kathy Charmaz Constructivist

10.1.2.2.1. Anthony Bryant

10.1.2.3. Adele Clark Situational Analysis

10.1.2.4. Leonard Scahtzman/Barbara Bowers-Dimensional Analysis

10.1.2.5. Christina Goulding GT in Managment, Business and Marketing

11. Web Resources

11.1. Grounded Theory Online

11.2. Grounded Theory Process on SAGE

11.3. A Thumbnail Sketch

11.4. Online Grounded Theory Articles

11.5. Grounded Theory Institute

11.6. Barney Glaser on YouTube

12. Participant work

12.1. Pat Ch 3

13. GTM Skills and aptitudes

13.1. Theoretical sensitivity

13.1.1. New node

14. Plus Mentoring paper ideas

14.1. GTM

14.1.1. Concantenated

14.2. Web based teaching and learning

14.2.1. Using web based resources to support a doctoral cohort.

14.3. QDA descriptive

14.3.1. Photovoice