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Grounded Theory Method by Mind Map: Grounded Theory Method
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Grounded Theory Method

Major works of Classical Grounded theory

The Discovery of Grounded Theory

Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory. New York: Aldine de Grutyer.

Theoretical Sensitivity

Glaser, B. G. (1978). Theoretical sensitivity. Mill Valley, CA,Sociology Press

Doing Grounded Theory

Glaser, B. G. (1998). Doing Grounded Theory: Issues and Discussions. Mill Valley CA: Sociology Press.

Ch1. Doing Grounded Theory:Issues and Discussions, General Properties of Grounded theories, not findings, systematic generation of theory from data acquired by a rigorous research method, integrated set of conceptual hypotheses, Minus Mentoring, Phyllis Stern, Researchers working where there is no one to train them in the method., There are ways of working around this, online, email, physical workshops, Not always a bad thing and some are more suited to this type of independence, All is Data, No particular type of data is sanctified, objective or valid, preconceiving what data will be used for a study severely restricts the generative aspect of the study and consequently the theory., Four types of Data: from factual descriptions to airy ungrounded conceptualizations., Baseline= the best description a participant can offer, Properline= what the participant thinks it is proper to tell the researcher, Interpreted= presented by a trained professional who's job it is to see that data is seen in a particular way, Vaguing out=vagueries offered when the participant doesn't think it is any of the researchers business., analysis of secondary can be productive, Self-interveiw, Collaboration, GT ideally suited for collaboration, Collaborators should write separately and then re-write each other's work, Conflicts during collaboration can yield other properties of the categories, Qualitative and Quantitative data, Once the theory explains what is going on other research may be done to test hypotheses., Even in strictly quantitative research there qualitative components in the interpretation, Grounded Theory fits with a natural human inclination to figure out hypotheses as to what is going on in our lives, Grounded theory is a package "Doing" can be used as a manual, A revolving step p process, Nothing left to chance, continually empowers the researcher conceptually and perceptually, For all it's rigor GT is designed to bring out the researcher's autonomy, discovery-a personal recipe, Learning GT takes about a year- delayed action curve-look for a eureka moment, 5 "S"s= susequent, sequential, simultaneous, serendipitous and scheduled, The product legitimizes the process, it works, The theory fits the substantive area (validity), I has relevance to the people in the substantive area, It is readily modifiable to accommodate new data: new data can't refute, merely adds a new category or dimension and provides an analytical challenge.

Ch.2 The Roots of Grounded Theory, University of Chicago, Columbian University, Awareness of Dying, Grounded Theory of Awareness contexts

Ch.3 The Rhetorical Wrestle

Ch. 4 Motivation

Ch. 5 Reading the Literature

Ch. 6 Forcing the Data

Ch. 7 Taping, Don't do it, Taping undermines the power of GT to delimit the research as quickly as possible in the process., Forestalls theoretical sampling, Slows progress and leads to data doubts, Interferes with creativity and skill development, Instead develop the necessary skills to take field notes., GT uses incidents in field notes as illustrations of categories and their properties rather than as evidence of findings.

Ch. 8 The Problem, The problem (main concern) is the prime organizational feature of a GT, The main concern of participants and how they continually resolve their problem explains most of their behavior, Strategies use in the resolution of main concern leads to core category

Ch.9 Generating Concepts, The license to conceptualize, Conceptual Levels, Categories, Core, Subcore, Categories for Theoretical completeness, Properties of other categories, Properties

Ch.10 Theoretical Sampling

Ch.11 Theoretical Coding, Helen: Codes maybe descriptive or conceptual. A descriptive code may also be conceptual. A conceptal code will be completely conceptual and not descriptive

Ch.12 Memoing

Ch.13 Sorting

Ch. 14 Writing

Ch.15 Learning Grounded Theory

Ch. 16 Trusting Grounded Theory

Grounded Theory: The Philosophy, Method, and Work of Barney Glaser

Martin, V. B., & Gynnild, A. (2011). Grounded Theory: The Philosophy, Method, and Work of Barney Glaser.

Part I Teaching Grounded Theory, Simmons, Why classic grounded theory?, Gynnild, Atmosphering for conceptual discovery, Guthrie, Getting through the Phd process using GT: A supervisor-researcher perspective, McCallin, Learning methodology minus mentoring

Part II: Doing Grounded Theory, Scott, Conducting grounded theory interviews online, Nilsson, Methods in grounded theory research, Hernandez, Developing grounded theory using focus groups, Thomas, The utility and efficacy of qualitative research software in grounded theory research, Thulesius, De-tabooing dying in western society:From awareness to control in the dying situation, Tarozzi, On translating grounded theory when translating is doing

Part III: Historical and Philosophical Grounding, Charmaz, Lessons for a lifetime: Learning grounded theory from Barney Glaser, Nathaniel, An integrated philosophical framework that fits grounded theory, What is so good about an integrated philosophical framework?, Engenders research that is ethical, logical, truthful and cohesive, Like a map, Roots in the Pragmatism of Peirce, Peirce's work influence both Glaser and Strauss, Peirce, William James, John Dewey, Herbert Blumer Symbolic interactionism, Strauss, Lazarfield, Glaser, George Herbert Meade, Three pivotal ideas from Preirce's Ontology that influence GT, Reality, Real is something "that which is not whatever we happen to think it but it is unaffected by what we may thing of it", There is a final true answer or conclusion to each question toward which each person is constantly gravitating, The final opinion is independent of all arbitrary and individual thought, Anything that exists in the final opinion is real, Every piece of scientific evidence adds to what was previously known and move toward a complete picture of truth and reality, As the process unfolds what is 'real' consists of both the object and the investigators ability to understand and communicate it., Latent Patterns, Phenomenon behave in certain ways, Primordial universe was chaos and has been progressing toward a state of organization, habit taking -- an original elemental tendency of things to acquire determinate properties, habit taking gradually evolves and tends to strengthen itself, Original events lead to..., laws which produce sequences both of which are mediated by..., mediating elements between chance which brings forth original events and law which produces sequences, Thirdness, representation is that which is operationalized in nature, allows predictability, makes the scientific method possible, Human perspective, Understanding and communication between people about the natural world can only occur through the use of signs or symbols, Philosophy of symbols=semiotics, Three kinds of signs, Icons or likenesses -- convey ideas of the things they represent by imitation, indices or indications--show something about the physical connection with the objects they represent, Symbols -- associated through meaning assigned as part of common language usage understood by both the utterer and the listener, Symbols are the human perspective and have three levels of interpretation, intentional, effectual, communicational, Holton, The autonomous creativity of Barney G Glaser: Early influences in the emergence of classic grounded theory methodology, Emeritus, Grounded Glasser, Gynnild: Living the idea: A biographical interview with Barney G Glaser

Part IV: Advancing Grounded Theory, Glaser, Generating formal theory, Andrews, Reflections on generating a formal grounded theory, Rosenbaum, From theoretical generation to verification of theory using structural equation modeling, Martin, The power of an enduring concept


get information proposal and glaser

substantive area

considerations, access, sufficient life cycle interest, area vs problem

Types of Data





Data sources

first hand formal interview, Field notes, no transcription, avoid worrisome accuracy

Archival material

focus group

personal journal

Observational Data, Indirect, emergent structure, informal inteviewing, analysis of organizational documentation, analysis of personal diaries, biographies and other texts

Edited book, Jargonizing


generate theory

explain what is really going on in an action scene

account for the most variation in the observed data

develop a parsimonious theory with scope

Validity of Grounded theories, Fit, Work, Relevance, Grab, Modifiability, Generalizability

GT Workflow

The five S's Glaser, B. G. (1998). Doing Grounded Theory: Issues and Discussions. Mill Valley California: Sociology Press.(p.15)  

Sequential: What is done next?

Subsequent: What is to be done later?

Simultaneous: Many activities at once, collecting, coding, analyzing, memoing, sorting and writing

Scheduled: subject to practicalities and life

Serendipitous: Staying open to surprise realizations

The package, Collecting, Theoretical Sampling, Constant comparison, Coding, Incidents, In vivo codes, Code families, Explication de text, Interchangeability of indicies, Substantive Coding, Open Coding, Theoretical Coding, Memoing, Sorting, Writing up

Stages of GT process, Odis Simmons

Stage 1 Preparation:

Stage 2: Data Collection

Stage 3: Constant Comparative Analysis

Stage 4: Memoing

Stage 5:Theoretical sorting

Stage 6 :Writing the theory

Saldana's Coding protocols

Saldana, J. (2009). The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. Sage Publications Ltd.

First Cycle Coding methods, Coding methods Profiles, Gramatical methods, Attribute coding, Magnitude coding, Simultaneous coding, Elemental methods, Structural coding, Descriptive coding, In Vivo coding, Process coding, Initial coding, Affective Methods, Emotion coding, Values coding, Versus coding, Evaluation coding, Literary and Language Methods, Dramaturgical coding, Motif coding, Narrative coding, Verbal exchange coding, Exploratory Methods, Holistic coding, Provisional coding, Hypothesis coding, Procedural Methods, OCM (Outline of Cultural Materials) coding, Protocol coding, Domain and taxonomic coding, Theming the data

Second Cycle Coding Methods, Pattern Coding, Focused coding, Axial coding, Theoretical coding, Elaborative coding, Longitudinal coding

Qualitative Methods


Case Study

Collaborative Inquiry

Narrative Research


Grounded theory

Quantitative Methods

Some question as to whether GT is quantitative or quatitative Infact it it neither or both  

Evidence Based Research

Double Blind

Grounded Theory

Theoretical Reasoning




Abductive, Charles Peirce, According to Pierces Idea of Precission, absolutes, give rise to epistemes,, give rise to ontolgies, give rise to paradigms, give rise to theories, give rise to facts, give rise to givens, Jo Riechertz, Abductive reasoning in GT


Logical Fallacies

Logical fallacies from Stephen Downes (linked url has examples of each), Fallacies of Distraction, False dilemma, From ignorance, Slippery Slope, Complex question, Appeals to motives in place of support, Appeal to force, Appeal to pity, Consequences, prejudicial disadvantage, Popularity, Changing the subject, Attacking the person, Persons character is attacked, persons circumstances are noted, person does not practice what is preached, appeal to authority, where authority is not expert in a field, where experts in the field disagree, the authority was joking, drunk or in some way not serious, Anonymous authority, Style over substance, inductive fallacies, Hasty generalization, unrepresentative sample, false analogy, slothful induction, fallacy of exclusion, Fallacies involving statistical syllogisms, Acident, converse accident, Causal fallacies, Post hoc, joint effect, insignificant, wrong direction, complex cause, Missing the point, begging the question, irrelevant conclusion, straw man, Fallacy of ambiquity, equivocation, amphiboly, accent, Category errors, Composition, Division, non sequitur, affirming the consequent, denying the antecedent, inconsistency, Syllogistic errors, Fallacy of four terms, undistributed middle, illicit major, illicit minor, fallacy of exclusive premises, fallacy of drawing an affirmative conclusion from a negative premise, Existential fallacy, Fallacies of explanation, Subverted support, non-support, untestability, Limited scope, Limited depth, Fallacies of definition, Too broad, Too narrow, Failure to elucidate, Circular definition, Conflicting conditions

Basic Social Processes

Action Oriented


Appreciative Inquiry

Action Science

Grounded Action

Systems Theory

Action Science

Dr. Russell Ackoff video re- systems thinking. Uses synthesis rather than analysis. Three steps to synthesis contrasted with analysis

The first step of analysis is taking a system apart. The first step of synthesis is asking "what is this system a part of?" If you want to understand an automobile you have to understand that it is a part of the transportation system., If you take a system apart it looses its functionality and there by you lose the ability to explain it. The motor is necessary but not sufficient. When you remove it from the car it just sits there.

The second step of analysis is to try to explain the behavior of the parts taken separately. The second step of synthesis is to try to explain the behavior of the larger containing system.

Third step of synthesis is to aggregate an understanding of the parts into an understanding of the whole. In the third step of synthesis you dis-aggregate the understanding of the containing whole by identifying the role or function of what it is you are trying to explain.

Issues for Grounded Theory Dissertations

Concept Paper

Literature Review

Basics Chapter 6


Data collection


Research Question

Basics p. 24

not the Grand Tour Question

Questions asked of the data, What category or property of a category does this incident indicate?, What is the data a study of?, What category does this incident indicate?, What is actually happening in the data?

GT Developers

Glaser and Strauss

Barney Glaser, Judith Holton, Constant Comparative Analysis 1965, Odis Simmons, Phyllis Norager-Stern

Anselm Straus, Anselm Strauss and Juliette Corbin, Kathy Charmaz Constructivist, Anthony Bryant, Adele Clark Situational Analysis, Leonard Scahtzman/Barbara Bowers-Dimensional Analysis, Christina Goulding GT in Managment, Business and Marketing

Web Resources

Grounded Theory Online

Grounded Theory Process on SAGE

A Thumbnail Sketch

Online Grounded Theory Articles

Grounded Theory Institute

Barney Glaser on YouTube

Participant work

Pat Ch 3

GTM Skills and aptitudes

Theoretical sensitivity

Borrowed from a PPT shared by Lovelace Owusu Asante of the University of Leicester On the discussion board of the Research Gate social network

New node

Plus Mentoring paper ideas



Web based teaching and learning

Using web based resources to support a doctoral cohort.

QDA descriptive