BIOCHEMISTRY

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BIOCHEMISTRY by Mind Map: BIOCHEMISTRY

1. Carbohydrates

1.1. Monosaccharides

1.1.1. Glucose

1.1.2. Fructose

1.2. Disaccharides

1.2.1. Sucrose

1.2.2. Maltose

1.2.3. Bonded through glycosidic linkages

1.3. Polysaccharides

1.3.1. Starches

1.3.2. Cellulose

1.3.3. Chitin

1.3.4. Bonded through glycosidic linkages

2. Proteins

2.1. Made up of Amino Acids

2.1.1. Primary structure

2.1.1.1. Chain of amino acids

2.1.1.1.1. Binded through peptide bonds

2.1.1.1.2. Each amino acid contains..

2.1.2. Secondary structure

2.1.2.1. Beta pleated sheet

2.1.2.2. Alpha helix

2.1.3. Tertiary structure

2.1.3.1. Interactions among R groups

2.1.4. Quaternary structure

2.1.4.1. Multiple folded protein subunits

3. Lipids

3.1. Unsaturated fats

3.1.1. Liquid at room temperature

3.1.2. Contain double bonds and "kinks"

3.1.3. Olive oil, grape-seed oil

3.2. Saturated fats

3.2.1. Solid at room temperature

3.2.2. Contain no double bonds or "kinks"

3.2.3. Butter, shortening

3.3. Bonded through ester linkages

3.4. Nonpolar- do not mix with water = hydrophobic substances

3.5. Composed of..

3.5.1. Glycerol head

3.5.2. Phosphate group

3.5.3. Fatty acid tails

4. Nucleic Acids

4.1. RNA

4.1.1. Ribose sugar

4.1.1.1. 4 bases

4.1.1.1.1. Uracil

4.1.1.1.2. Adenine

4.1.1.1.3. Guanine

4.1.1.1.4. Cytosine

4.2. DNA

4.2.1. Deoxyribose sugar

4.2.1.1. 4 bases

4.2.1.1.1. Thymine

4.2.1.1.2. Adenine

4.2.1.1.3. Guanine

4.2.1.1.4. Cytosine

4.3. Composed of..

4.3.1. Nitrogenous base

4.3.2. Phosphate group

4.3.3. Sugar

5. Carbon: The backbone of life

5.1. Ability to make 4 bonds

5.2. Several allotropes

6. Properties of Water

6.1. High specific heat

6.2. Less dense in solid form

6.3. Polar molecule

6.4. Hydrohpillic

6.5. Passes through semi-permeable membranes via aquaporins (Passive diffusion, no ATP used/needed)

6.6. High surface tension

6.7. High heat of vaporization