Special Education Categories and Accommodations

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Special Education Categories and Accommodations by Mind Map: Special Education Categories and Accommodations

1. Autism

1.1. a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

1.1.1. Communication problems

1.1.2. Difficulty relating to people, things, and events

1.1.3. Playing with toys and objects in unusual ways

1.1.3.1. How to help

1.1.3.1.1. Early intervention

1.1.3.1.2. Special education and related services

1.1.4. Difficulty adjusting to changes in routine or to familiar surroundings

1.1.5. Repetititive body movements or behaviors

2. Deaf-blindness

2.1. Deaf-blindness is a low incidence disability and within this very small group of children there is great variability. Many children who are deaf-blind have some usable vision and/or hearing. The majority of children who are deaf-blind also have additional physical, medical and/or cognitive problems. Children are considered to be deaf-blind when the combination of their hearing and vision loss causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they require significant and unique adaptations in their educational programs.

2.1.1. How to help

2.1.1.1. http://wwwcms.hutchcc.edu/uploadedFiles/Student_Resources/Disability_Services/tpshtdb.pdf

2.1.1.2. http://www.aadb.org/Technology/technology_intro.html

2.1.1.3. small group or individual instruction

2.1.1.4. make interactions balanced (my turn, your turn) to encourage him to be responsive

2.1.1.5. evaluate the child's response to an individual when determining who will be the primary provider of instruction

2.1.1.6. Safety, and get instruction and support from an orientation and mobility specialist

2.1.1.7. curriculum focus for the child with deaf-blindness should be on bonding and developing interactions and routines for expanding the frequency and functions of communication

2.1.1.8. Developing a communication foundation for learning is a priority.The child with deaf-blindness may first need to be moved co-actively through an activity to know what is expected of him. After he understands what is expected, this support would be faded to avoid building prompt dependence.

3. Deafness

3.1. means a hearing impairment so severe that a child is impaired in processing linguistic information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

3.1.1. Signs of a Hearing Loss or Deafness           does not respond consistently to sounds or to his or her own name; asks for things to be repeated or often says “huh?” is delayed in developing speech or has unclear speech; turns the volume up loud on the TV and other electronic devices. (CDC, 2012)

3.1.1.1. How to help

3.1.1.1.1. Early intervention

3.1.1.1.2. Special education and related services

4. Developmental delay

4.1. for children from birth to age three (under IDEA Part C) and children from ages three through nine (under IDEA Part B), the term developmental delay, as defined by each State, means a delay in one or more of the following areas: physical development; cognitive development; communication; social or emotional development; or adaptive [behavioral] development.

4.1.1. How to help

4.1.1.1. Early intervention services

4.1.1.1.1. Assistive technology (devices a child might need) Audiology or hearing services Speech and language services Counseling and training for a family Medical services Nursing services Nutrition services Occupational therapy Physical therapy Psychological services

4.1.1.2. Special education services

4.1.1.3. School

4.1.1.3.1. consistent with classroom routines to train them be more independent.

4.1.1.3.2. Predictability

4.1.1.3.3. promoting appropriate social interaction.

5. Emotional disturbance

5.1. means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance: (a) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors. (b) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers. (c) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances. (d) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression. (e) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.

5.1.1. there is actually a wide range of specific conditions that differ from one another in their characteristics and treatment. These include (but are not limited to):

5.1.2. anxiety disorders;

5.1.3. bipolar disorder (sometimes called manic-depression);

5.1.4. conduct disorders;

5.1.5. eating disorders;

5.1.6. obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD);

5.1.7. psychotic disorders.

5.1.8. How to help

5.1.8.1. Typically, educational programs for children with an emotional disturbance need to include attention to providing emotional and behavioral support as well as helping them to master academics, develop social skills, and increase self-awareness, self-control, and self-esteem.

5.1.8.2. providing students with positive behavioral support (PBS) in the school environment

5.1.8.3. For a child whose behavior impedes learning (including the learning of others), the team developing the child’s Individualized Education Program (IEP) needs to consider

6. Hearing impairment

6.1. means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but is not included under the definition of “deafness.”

6.1.1. Signs of a Hearing Loss or Deafness

6.1.1.1. does not respond consistently to sounds or to his or her own name; asks for things to be repeated or often says “huh?” is delayed in developing speech or has unclear speech; turns the volume up loud on the TV and other electronic devices. (CDC, 2012)

6.1.2. How to help

6.1.2.1. Early intervention

6.1.2.2. Special education and related services

6.1.2.2.1. regular speech, language, and auditory training from a specialist; amplification systems; services of an interpreter for those students who use sign language; favorable seating in the class to facilitate lip reading; captioned films/videos; assistance of a notetaker, who takes notes for the student with a hearing loss, so that the student can fully attend to instruction; instruction for the teacher and peers in alternate communication methods, such as sign language; and counseling.

6.1.2.2.2. Classroom

6.1.2.2.3. Communication Considerations

6.1.2.2.4. Visual Strategies and Curriculum Accommodations

7. Intellectual disability

7.1. …means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently [at the same time] with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

7.1.1. How to help

7.1.1.1. special education and related services

7.1.1.2. Individualized Education Program

7.1.1.2.1. General education.

7.1.1.2.2. Supplementary aids and services.

8. Multiple disabilities

8.1. means concomitant [simultaneous] impairments (such as intellectual disability-blindness, intellectual disability-orthopedic impairment, etc.), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in a special education program solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.

8.1.1. Tips for Teachers

8.1.1.1. Know the needs, play to the strengths.Learning more about each disability of the student will be helpful in addressing those learning needs. Also find out more about the student’s strengths and interests, enthusiasms, and preferences.

8.1.1.2. Be familiar with the student’s IEP. It’s important to be familiar with what the student’s IEP requires. Ask for a copy. Consult with administrators and other teachers, as needed, to make sure that the supports and services listed in the IEP are provided.

8.1.1.3. Make modifications.Help them access the general education curriculum at a grade-appropriate level

8.1.1.4. Consider assistive technology (AT) Computers, augmentative/alternative communication systems, and communication boards...

8.1.1.5. Allow partial participation, as necessary.Partial participation means that students with multiple disabilities aren’t excluded from activities because they might not be able to complete a task fully or independently. Modifications can be made to the task itself or to how students participate.

8.1.1.6. Encourage the student’s independence.

8.1.1.7. Address behavior issues

8.1.1.8. Related services may include speech-language therapy, occupational therapy, physical therapy, or orientation and mobility services. It’s best practice to provide these services in the classroom during the natural routine of the school, although some may be provided in other settings.

9. Orthopedic impairment

9.1. means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly, impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g.,cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

9.1.1. How to help

9.1.1.1. Special Furniture-A child in a wheelchair, or a child with a spinal problem, may require some special chair or table.

9.1.1.2. Modified Writing aids-A child with a disability in their upper limb may benefit from writing aids. Writing aids include writing boards, special paper, pencil grips, and special pencil holders. Children with coordination problems may also benefit from a weighted vest. As a teacher you can help by emphasizing on learning the concept and giving the child a little extra time to write.

9.1.1.3. Modified Lesson Plans and Classroom Activities-This can be done by adapting the materials you provide, assigning a helper, or allotting a task that they will be able to do independently.

9.1.1.4. Inclusive Classroom

9.1.1.5. http://orthopedicimpairments.weebly.com/for-teachers.html

10. Other health impairment

10.1. means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that— (a) is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, sickle cell anemia, and Tourette syndrome; and (b) adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

10.1.1. How to help

10.1.1.1. school health services and school nurse services, which are defined by IDEA as “…health services that are designed to enable a child with a disability to receive FAPE as described in the child’s IEP. School nurse services are services provided by a qualified school nurse. School health services are services that may be provided by either a qualified school nurse or other qualified person.”

10.1.1.2. Accommodations Implementing Technology.One easy to implement accommodation would be to audiotape or videotape your class period or lectures.Another technology accommodation would be providing students with a class website. On this site, teachers could post current and future assignments, lecture topics, and assessment dates.

10.1.1.3. http://supportsped.blogspot.com/2011/03/strategies-for-teaching-students-with_4502.html

11. Specific learning disability

11.1. …means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations. The term includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of intellectual disability; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

11.1.1. Learning disability is a general term that describes specific kinds of learning problems. A learning disability can cause a person to have trouble learning and using certain skills. The skills most often affected are: reading, writing, listening, speaking, reasoning, and doing math.

11.1.1.1. How to help

11.1.1.1.1. Learn as much as you can about the different types of LD.

11.1.1.1.2. Seize the opportunity to make an enormous difference in this student’s life! Find out and emphasize what the student’s strengths and interests are. Give the student positive feedback and lots of opportunities for practice.

11.1.1.1.3. Provide instruction and accommodations to address the student’s special needs. Examples: breaking tasks into smaller steps, and giving directions verbally and in writing; giving the student more time to finish schoolwork or take tests; letting the student with reading problems use instructional materials that are accessible to those with print disabilities; letting the student with listening difficulties borrow notes from a classmate or use a tape recorder; and letting the student with writing difficulties use a computer with specialized software that spell checks, grammar checks, or recognizes speech.

11.1.1.1.4. Learn about the different testing modifications that can really help a student with LD show what he or she has learned.

11.1.1.1.5. Teach organizational skills, study skills, and learning strategies.

11.1.1.1.6. Work with the student’s parents to create an IEP tailored to meet the student’s needs.

11.1.1.1.7. Establish a positive working relationship with the student’s parents.

11.1.2. “Learning disabilities” is not the only term used to describe these difficulties. Others include: dyslexia—which refers to difficulties in reading; dysgraphia—which refers to difficulties in writing; and dyscalcula—which refers to difficulties in math.

12. Speech or language impairment

12.1. means a communication disorder such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.

12.1.1. Articulation | speech impairments where the child produces sounds incorrectly (e.g., lisp, difficulty articulating certain sounds, such as “l” or “r”);

12.1.2. Fluency | speech impairments where a child’s flow of speech is disrupted by sounds, syllables, and words that are repeated, prolonged, or avoided and where there may be silent blocks or inappropriate inhalation, exhalation, or phonation patterns;

12.1.2.1. Assistive technology (AT)-such as an electronic communication system or other device

12.1.2.2. know the specific impairment and how it affects the student’s communication abilities.

12.1.2.3. Find out what the student’s strengths and interests are, and emphasize them

12.1.2.4. If you are not part of the student’s IEP team, ask for a copy of his or her IEP

12.1.2.5. Make sure that needed accommodations are provided for classwork, homework, and testing.

12.1.2.6. Consult with others (e.g., special educators, the SLP) who can help you identify strategies for teaching and supporting this student, ways to adapt the curriculum, and how to address the student’s IEP goals in your classroom.

12.1.2.7. Communicate with the student’s parents.

12.1.3. Voice | speech impairments where the child’s voice has an abnormal quality to its pitch, resonance, or loudness

12.1.4. Language | language impairments where the child has problems expressing needs, ideas, or information, and/or in understanding what others say.

13. Traumatic brain injury

13.1. …means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative, or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.

13.1.1. Signs of Traumatic Brain Injury

13.1.1.1. Physical disabilities-Individuals with TBI may have problems speaking, seeing, hearing, and using their other senses. They may have headaches and feel tired a lot. They may also have trouble with skills such as writing or drawing. Their muscles may suddenly contract or tighten (this is called spasticity). They may also have seizures. Their balance and walking may also be affected. They may be partly or completely paralyzed on one side of the body, or both sides.

13.1.1.2. Difficulties with thinking:children with TBI may have trouble with short-term memory,They may also have trouble with their long-term memory.People with TBI may have trouble concentrating and only be able to focus their attention for a short time. They may think slowly. They may have trouble talking and listening to others. They may also have difficulty with reading and writing, planning, understanding the order in which events happen (called sequencing), and judgment.

13.1.1.2.1. How to help

13.1.1.3. Social, behavioral, or emotional problems: These difficulties may include sudden changes in mood, anxiety, and depression. Children with TBI may have trouble relating to others. They may be restless and may laugh or cry a lot. They may not have much motivation or much control over their emotions.

14. Visual impairment, including blindness

14.1. …means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

14.1.1. How to help

14.1.1.1. Educational Considerations

14.1.1.1.1. Children with visual impairments need to learn the same subjects and academic skills as their sighted peers, although they will probably do so in adapted ways. They must also learn an expanded set of skills that are distinctly vision-related, including learning how to: move about safely and independently, which is known as orientation and mobility (O&M); use assistive technologies designed for children with visual impairments; use what residual vision they have effectively and efficiently; and read and write in Braille, if determined appropriate by the IEP team of the child after a thorough evaluation. (11) These are just some of the skills that need to be discussed by the student’s IEP team and included in the IEP, if the team decides that’s appropriate. Each of the above skill areas—and more—can be addressed under the umbrella of special education and related services for a child with a visual impairment.

14.1.1.2. Teachers

14.1.1.2.1. Learn as much as you can about the student’s specific visual impairment.

14.1.1.2.2. Learn about the many instructional and classroom accommodations that truly help students with visual impairments learn.

14.1.1.2.3. If you are not part of the student’s IEP team, ask for a copy of his or her IEP.

14.1.1.2.4. Consult with others (e.g., special educators, the O&M specialist) who can help you identify strategies for teaching and supporting this student, ways to adapt the curriculum, and how to address the student’s IEP goals in your classroom.

14.1.1.2.5. Communicate with the student’s parents