My Foundations of Education

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My Foundations of Education by Mind Map: My Foundations of Education

1. Politics of Education

1.1. Perspective of Education

1.1.1. Liberal

1.1.1.1. John Dewey

1.1.1.2. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liberal_education

1.1.1.3. Franklin D Roosevelt

1.1.1.4. The role of government is to ensure the fair treatment of all citizens

1.1.1.5. Believes that if the free market is left unregulated it will be prone to significant abuses, particularly to the economically and politically disadvantaged.

1.1.1.6. Schools have a role in providing the necessary education to ensure that all students have an equal opportunity to succeed in society.

1.1.1.7. Education balances the needs of society and the individual in a manner consistent with a democratic and meritocratic society.

1.1.1.8. Argue the following:

1.1.1.8.1. Schools have too often limited chances of poor and minority children and therefore the problems of underachievement by these groups is a critical issue

1.1.1.8.2. Schools place too much emphasis on authority

1.1.1.8.3. The difference between schools with students of low socioeconomic backgrounds and high socioeconomic backgrounds is a central problem in the quality of schools

1.1.1.8.4. Curriculum leaves out the diverse cultures of the groups making up our society

1.1.1.9. Support the following

1.1.1.9.1. Policies should combine a concern for quality for all students with equal opportunites

1.1.1.9.2. Policies should lead to the improvement of failing schools

1.1.1.9.3. Programs should enhance equality

1.1.1.9.4. Curriculum should balance traditions of Western culture with a diverse society

1.1.1.9.5. Performance standards should ensure that students can meet them

1.2. Visions of Education

1.2.1. Progressivism

1.2.1.1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Progressive_education

1.2.1.2. Emphasis on learning by doing

1.2.1.3. Emphasis on problem solving and critical thinking

1.2.1.4. Group work and development of social skills

1.2.1.5. Education for social responsibility and democracy

1.2.1.6. Emphasis on lifelong learning

2. History of U.S. Education

2.1. Historical Interpretations

2.1.1. Democratic-Liberal School

2.1.1.1. involves progressive evolution of a school system committed to providing equality of opportunity for all

2.1.1.2. each period of education expansion attempted to expand educational opportunities

2.1.1.2.1. Ellwood Cubberly

2.1.1.2.2. Merle Curti

2.1.1.2.3. Lawrence Cremin

2.1.1.3. View education history optimistically

2.1.1.3.1. evolution has been flawed

2.1.1.3.2. conflict leads to increased opportunites

2.1.1.4. Educational system must move towards ideals:

2.1.1.4.1. Equality

2.1.1.4.2. Excellence

2.2. Influential Reform Movement

2.2.1. The Age of Reform: 1820-1860

2.2.1.1. Establishment of common schools

2.2.1.2. Education for women and African Americans

2.2.1.3. Emergence of the Public High School

3. Sociology of Education

3.1. Relationship between school and society

3.1.1. Perspectives

3.1.1.1. Functional Theories

3.1.1.1.1. examines how well the parts are integrated

3.1.1.1.2. Society is a machine

3.1.1.1.3. consensus is the normal state of society

3.1.1.1.4. Education reform should encourage social unity

3.1.1.2. Conflict Theories

3.1.1.2.1. social order is based on the ability of dominant groups to impose their will on the subordinate

3.1.1.2.2. Glue of Sociey

3.1.1.2.3. schools are social battlefields

3.1.1.2.4. Karl Marx

3.1.1.2.5. Max Weber

3.1.1.2.6. schools pass on to graduates specific social identities that enhance or hinder there life chances

3.1.1.3. Interactional Theories

3.1.1.3.1. educational system and the interactional aspects of the system reflect each other

3.2. Effects of schooling on individuals

3.2.1. Knowledge and Attitudes

3.2.1.1. higher the social class background of the student the higher his achievement level

3.2.1.1.1. Coleman and Jencks

3.2.1.2. policies make a difference in student learning

3.2.1.2.1. Ron Edmonds

3.2.1.3. student who went to summer school and used libraries made greater gains

3.2.1.3.1. Heyns

3.2.1.4. The more education individual recieve

3.2.1.4.1. More likely to read and take part in politics

3.2.2. Employment

3.2.3. Mobility

4. Schools as Organizations

4.1. Major Stakeholders

4.1.1. State Senator

4.1.1.1. Larry Stutts-Republican- Alabama District 6

4.1.2. House of Representatives

4.1.2.1. Marcel Black- Democratic- Alabama District 3

4.1.3. State Superintendent

4.1.3.1. Thomas R. Bice

4.1.4. Local School Board

4.1.4.1. Steve Hargrove

4.1.4.2. Carl David Myrick

4.1.4.3. Fred Mason

4.1.4.4. Phyllis Meade

4.1.4.5. Polly Ruggles

4.1.4.6. Timothy Morgan- Superintendent

4.2. Comparison of Educational Systems

4.2.1. United States

4.2.1.1. Divided educational systems

4.2.1.1.1. Public Educational System

4.2.1.1.2. Private Educational System

4.2.1.2. Decentralized down to the local level

4.2.1.3. Taxpayers fund public schools and therefore have a say in policy decesions

4.2.1.3.1. education influenced by voting

4.2.1.4. Open school system

4.2.1.4.1. students are entitled to enroll in public schools and remain until graduation.

4.2.2. Great Britian

4.2.2.1. Before 19th century all educaton was private

4.2.2.2. Was Stratified by economic standing until resently

4.2.2.2.1. selected and sorted by examination

5. Curriculum and Pedagogy

5.1. Historical curriculum

5.1.1. Developmentalist curriculum

5.1.1.1. Relates to the needs and interests of the student rather than the needs of society.

5.1.1.2. From the writings of Dewey

5.1.1.3. Relates schooling to life experiences of each child.

5.1.1.4. Student-centered flexible what was taught and how it was taught.

5.2. Sociological Curriculum

5.2.1. Functionist Curriculum

5.2.1.1. curriculum represents the codification of knowledge.

5.2.1.2. Students must become competant members of society.

5.2.1.3. Curriculum gives knowledge to ensure social stability

6. Equality of Opportunity

6.1. Educational Achievement and Attainment of Women

6.1.1. Females achieve at higher levels in reading at ages 9, 13, and 17.

6.1.2. achieve higher in math at age 9 but lower at 13 and 17

6.1.3. 87.6% of females graduated from high school and 29.8% receive a bachelor's degree

6.2. Coleman Study

6.2.1. Response to Coleman: Round Three

6.2.1.1. Formal decompositon of the variance attributable to individual background and the social composition of the schools suggests that going to a high-poverty school or a highly segregated school has a profound effect on a student's achievement outcomes.

6.2.1.2. Where a individual goes to school is often related to her race and socioeconomic background.

6.2.1.3. Racial and socioeconomic compostion of a school has a greater effect on student achievement than an individual's race and class.

7. Educational Inequality

7.1. Sociological explanation of unequal achievement.

7.1.1. Cultural Difference Theory

7.1.1.1. cultural differences between working class and nonwhite students and middle-class students

7.1.1.2. Family differences between working class and nonwhite students and middle-class students

7.1.1.3. Do not blame working-class and nonwhite families for educational problems.

7.2. School-Centered Explanation

7.2.1. School Financing

7.2.1.1. Public schools are financed by local, state, and federal sources.

7.2.1.2. Wealthy areas have more money for school funding than poorer areas

7.2.1.3. Wealthier communities can provide more per-pupil spending than poorer communities

7.2.1.4. Using programs to ensure all districts recieve standared funding increases equality.

8. Educational Reform

8.1. School-Based Reform

8.1.1. Vouchers

8.1.1.1. possibly violate separation of church and state

8.1.1.2. School Choice might have educational impacts

8.1.1.3. Provides low-income parents with the same choices as middle-class parents

8.1.1.4. Provide better learning envirnoments due to lack of bureaucracy.

8.1.1.5. Competive markets force school improvments.

8.2. Societal reform