Chemistry:  Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

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Chemistry:  Atoms, Elements, and Compounds by Mind Map: Chemistry:  Atoms, Elements, and Compounds

1. Matter

1.1. what is matter

1.1.1. three states of matter

1.1.1.1. heat

1.1.1.1.1. solid

1.1.1.1.2. liquid

1.1.1.1.3. gas

1.1.1.2. cool

1.1.1.2.1. solid

1.1.1.2.2. liquid

1.1.1.2.3. gas

1.2. classifying matter

1.2.1. pure substance

1.2.1.1. elements

1.2.1.1.1. substance that cannot be broken down any simpler by chemical means

1.2.1.2. compounds

1.2.1.2.1. pure substance that is made from two or more elements that are combined chemically

1.2.2. mixture

1.2.2.1. homogeneous mixtures

1.2.2.1.1. (mixtures in which the parts look the same)

1.2.2.2. heterogeneous mixtures

1.2.2.2.1. (mixtures in which the parts are individually visible)

1.3. physical properties

1.3.1. transparency

1.3.1.1. the amount that one can see through a substance (higher=more see through)

1.3.2. viscosity

1.3.2.1. the resistance of a fluid to flow (higher=more resistance)

1.3.3. malleability

1.3.3.1. the ease with which a material can be pounded or rolled (higher=easier to shape)

1.3.4. hardness

1.3.4.1. a substance's resistance to being scratched (higher=harder to scratch)

1.3.5. ductility

1.3.5.1. the stretch ability of a solid into a long wire (higher=easier to stretch)

1.3.6. density

1.3.6.1. the amount of mass in a given volume of a substance (higher=more mass)

1.3.7. conductivity

1.3.7.1. the ability of a substance to conduct electricity or heat (higher=better ability)

1.3.8. colour and lustre

1.3.8.1. the light a substance reflects gives it colour and lustre/shine (higher=shinier)

1.4. chemical properties and changes

1.4.1. chemical property

1.4.1.1. describes the ability of a substance to change into a new substance of substances

1.4.2. physical change

1.4.2.1. a change in which the substances involved remain the same substances, though there may be a change in state or form

1.4.3. chemical change

1.4.3.1. a change that always results in the formation of a new substance or substances

2. The Atom

2.1. important discoveries that shaped atomic theory

2.1.1. atom

2.1.1.1. the smallest part of an element that still has all the element's properties

2.1.2. Bohr's theroy

2.1.2.1. electrons surround the nucleus in specific energy levels called shells, the first shell can hold two electrons and shells two and three can hold eight electrons

2.1.3. Quantum Mechanical Model

2.1.3.1. the most advances and most accurate model of the atom in which the electrons still have specific energy levels but the electrons cloud around the nucleus

2.2. a summary of the atom

2.2.1. electrons

2.2.1.1. the negatively charged particles in the atom, specifically surrounding the nucleus

2.2.2. neutrons

2.2.2.1. neutral particles in the nucleus of the atom

2.2.3. protons

2.2.3.1. positively charges particles in the atom, specifically in the nucleus

2.3. element classes

2.3.1. metals

2.3.1.1. most are shiny and silver, are excellent conductors of electricity and heat and are malleable and ductile

2.3.2. metalloids

2.3.2.1. elements with metallic and non-metallic properties, still can conduct electricity and heat, but not as well, making the currents easier to control

2.3.3. non-metals

2.3.3.1. only 17 elements are non-metals, grouped together because they do not resemble metals at all

2.3.3.1.1. 11 are gases at room temperature

2.3.3.1.2. 5 are solids at room temperature

2.3.3.1.3. 1 is a liquid at room temperature

2.4. introducing the periodic table

2.4.1. atomic number

2.4.1.1. the number of protons in an atom in an element (located at the top right of the element box)

2.4.2. atomic mass

2.4.2.1. the average mass of an element's atoms (located below the element name)

2.4.3. ion

2.4.3.1. an atom or group of atoms that has lost or gained electrons (which makes it have all full shells)

2.4.4. ion charge

2.4.4.1. the electric charge that an atom takes on when it loses or gains electrons

2.4.5. period

2.4.5.1. the name of each of the rows of the periodic table (seven in total)

2.4.6. group

2.4.6.1. the name of each of the columns of the periodic table (eighteen in total) also known as a chemical family

3. Ionic Compound

3.1. forming an ion charge

3.1.1. forming an ion charge

3.1.1.1. ions have all full shells, so the easier way for an atom to get all full shells determines its charge

3.1.1.2. (for example, chlorine has 7 valence electrons so it is easier for it to gain an electron and have -1 charge)

3.1.2. valence shell

3.1.2.1. the valence shell is the outermost shell on the Bohr diagram

3.1.3. valence elections

3.1.3.1. the electrons on the valence shell

3.1.4. Lewis structure

3.1.4.1. a diagram in which only the amount of elections in the outermost shell are shown

3.2. ionic compounds

3.2.1. ionic compounds

3.2.1.1. substances made up of at least one metal and one non-metal

3.2.1.2. the metal becomes a positive ion and the non-metal becomes a negative ion

3.2.2. naming ionic compounds

3.2.2.1. the first element, the metal, remains the same

3.2.2.2. the second element, the non-metal, changes its ending to "ide"

3.2.3. writing formulas for ionic compounds

3.2.3.1. magnesium chloride

3.2.3.1.1. Mg2+     Cl-

3.2.3.1.2. Mg2+ Cl-       Cl-

3.2.3.1.3. MgCl2

3.2.3.2. calcium nitrite

3.2.3.2.1. Ca2+     N3-

3.2.3.2.2. Ca2+      Ca2+     Ca2+ N3-     N3-

3.2.3.2.3. Ca3N2

3.2.3.3. iron oxide

3.2.3.3.1. Fe2+     O2-

3.2.3.3.2. Fe2+ O2-

3.2.3.3.3. FeO

4. Molecular Compounds

4.1. hazards and benefits of compounds

4.1.1. chemicals

4.1.1.1. can be measured in parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg)

4.1.2. managing the use of hazardous chemicals

4.1.2.1. understanding the properties and how to use these substances safelly

4.1.2.2. designing innovative equipment and processes

4.1.2.3. placing personal safety and environment protection as the top priority

4.1.2.4. enforcing effective regulations

4.2. molecular compounds

4.2.1. molecular compounds

4.2.1.1. substances created by combining non-metals only

4.2.2. naming molecular compounds

4.2.2.1. the first element's suffix remains the same

4.2.2.2. the second element's ending changes to "ide"

4.2.2.3. a prefix is put before both elements to indicate how many atoms of that elements there are

4.2.2.4. only the second element gets the mono prefix if there is only one

4.2.3. writing formulas for molecular compounds

4.2.3.1. symbol

4.2.3.1.1. the letter of couple of letters that represents the elements on the periodic table

4.2.3.2. wrinting molecular compound formulas

4.2.3.2.1. identify the symbol of the first element

4.2.3.2.2. identify the symbol of the second element

4.2.3.2.3. add subscripts to each element telling how many there are of each

4.2.3.3. subscripts

4.2.3.3.1. the small number on the bottom right of the symbol that shows of amount of atoms of each element