Student Assessments (Secondary History)

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Student Assessments (Secondary History) by Mind Map: Student Assessments (Secondary History)

1. Peer Assessment

1.1. Definition

1.1.1. Peer assessments are assessments in which students have their work evaluated by their peers instead of their teacher.

1.2. Purpose

1.2.1. The purpose of the peer assessment is to benefit the student being assessed as well as the student doing the assessing. When students evaluate the work of their peers they easily identify gaps in their own performance by comparing it to their peers. The feedback process in peer assessments creates and exchange of ideas that benefits both parties.

1.3. Advantages

1.3.1. - Benefits both sides of the evaluation process

1.3.2. - Promotes student involvement and responsibility

1.4. Disadvantages

1.4.1. - Can risk the reliability of evaluations

1.4.2. - Students may be reluctant to evaluate their peers

1.5. Of vs For

1.5.1. Peer assessments are assessments FOR learning. Even if the assessments are summative in nature, the students will be receiving real-time feed back through the works of their peers that will benefit them in their own learning processes.

1.6. Example

1.6.1. An example of a peer assessment would be a test given that contained various question types, such as multiple choice, fill in the blank, and essay. When the students evaluate the tests of their peers they will also be receiving indirect feedback of their own work.

2. Diagnostic

2.1. Definition

2.1.1. A diagnostic assessment is a summative assessment of a students current knowledge base.

2.2. Purpose

2.2.1. Diagnostic assessments are used to provide teachers with a baseline of each students knowledge level which can be used in the future to monitor and evaluate learning progress. Also, diagnostics assessments are useful in determining if a student is beginning at their expected performance level or if the student will require any degree of intervention.

2.3. Advantages

2.3.1. - Provides a knowledge baseline

2.3.2. - Helps in developing lesson plans

2.3.3. -Helps in determining necessary differentiation

2.4. Disadvantages

2.4.1. - A single assessment may lead to inaccurate implementation of teaching strategies and techniques given the small sample size of assessments.

2.5. Of vs For

2.5.1. Diagnostic assessments are assessments OF learning. They are used by teachers to establish baselines of knowledge and aid in lesson planning and differentiation strategies.

2.6. Example

2.6.1. An example of a diagnostic assessment would be a multiple choice or fill in the blank style test at the beginning of a semester or school year. This assessment would cover basic concepts that students should have learned in previous years to assess their readiness level for the year/semester to come.

2.7. Citations

2.7.1. Diagnostic and Formative Assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2016, from

2.7.2. Diagnostic, Formative & Summative Assessments – What's the difference? (2012). Retrieved July 16, 2016, from

3. Self-Assessment

3.1. Definition

3.1.1. A self-assessment is an assessment in which students evaluate their own work.

3.2. Purpose

3.2.1. The purpose of self-assessments is primarily to allow the student to identify their own strengths and weaknesses, to monitor their own progress, to set goals, and to focus on improving in the areas they need to.

3.3. Advantages

3.3.1. - Easy for students to monitor their own progress

3.3.2. - Encourages student responsibility

3.4. Disadvantages

3.4.1. - Potential for students to assess themselves overly positively to achieve a higher grade

3.5. Of vs For

3.5.1. Self-assessments are assessments FOR learning. They are assessments generated by the students themselves to give them direct access to their learning progress and allow them to refocus their efforts where it is most needed.

3.6. Example

3.6.1. An example of a self-assessment would be an assignment where students write a short paper and evaluate themselves on detail and accuracy of historical content as well as grammar and writing style.

3.7. Citations

3.7.1. Student Self-Assessment. (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2016, from

4. Formative

4.1. Definition

4.1.1. A formative assessment is a type of assessment given during the learning process.

4.2. Purpose

4.2.1. The purpose of a formative assessment is to provide teachers with real-time information regarding students learning progress, and to provide students with information regarding their own strengths or weaknesses relative to the topic.

4.3. Advantages

4.3.1. - Provides real-time feedback

4.3.2. - Benefits students as well as teachers

4.4. Disadvantages

4.4.1. - The time required to administer formative assessments during the lesson can cut in to the teachers ability to finish the lesson plan on time.

4.5. Of vs For

4.5.1. Formative assessments are assessments FOR learning. They are used during the learning process and provide students and teachers a snapshot of learning progress so adjustments may be made in real-time.

4.6. Example

4.6.1. An example of a formative assessment would be a homework assignment in which students are required to read from their text book then write 3 newspaper headlines that pertain to the assigned reading material. These headlines would be handed in at the beginning of the following class and used by the teacher to evaluate how well the students understood the material and to adjust the instruction as necessary.

4.7. Citations

4.7.1. Formative vs Summative Assessment-Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation - Carnegie Mellon University. (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2016, from

4.7.2. Sasser, N. (n.d.). What Are the Advantages & Disadvantages of Formative Assessment? Retrieved July 16, 2016, from

5. Summative

5.1. Definition

5.1.1. A summative assessment is an assessment used to evaluate learning progress

5.2. Purpose

5.2.1. The purpose of a summative assessment is to evaluate the learning progress of students. They are generally give at the end of a course, semester, or unit.

5.3. Advantages

5.3.1. - Assesses learning progress

5.3.2. - Weight in the grading system can motivate students to strive for a high score

5.3.3. - Can aid a teacher in self-assessing their lesson plan or teaching techniques

5.4. Disadvantages

5.4.1. - Cant be used to identify learning or teaching problems at an early stage

5.4.2. - Can promote high pressure or stress situations for students

5.5. Of vs For

5.5.1. Summative assessments are assessments OF learning. They are used by teachers to evaluate the progress made by students over a particular period of time.

5.6. Example

5.6.1. Examples of summative assessments include end of unit tests, end of chapter tests, or state/national standardized tests.

5.7. Citations

5.7.1. Coffey, H. (n.d.). Summative assessment. Retrieved July 16, 2016, from

5.7.2. Formative vs Summative Assessment-Teaching Excellence & Educational Innovation - Carnegie Mellon University. (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2016, from

6. Performance-Based

6.1. Definition

6.1.1. A performance-based assessment is one which measures a students ability to apply their knowledge.

6.2. Purpose

6.2.1. The purpose of a performance-based assessment is to evaluate a students learning progress by creating a scenario in which the students must use all the skills they have learned form the lesson and apply them within the boundaries of the scenario.

6.3. Advantages

6.3.1. - Deeper knowledge evaluation than some other assessment types

6.3.2. - Gives a well rounded picture of student learning progress

6.4. Disadvantages

6.4.1. - Evaluation of assessment can be subjective

6.4.2. - Can be time consuming for students and teachers

6.5. Of vs For

6.5.1. Performance-based assessments are assessments OF learning. They are typically used to evaluate the progress made throughout a unit or semester.

6.6. Example

6.6.1. An example of a performance-based assessment would be to have students take on the persona of a colonial era European who is planning to immigrate to the American colonies. The assessment would require students to compose a letter in this persona to a fictional friend or family member. The purpose of the letter would be to explain the reasons for their characters move to America, taking into account social, political, and religious climates to explain their motivations.

6.7. Citations

6.7.1. Hilliard, P. (2015). Performance-Based Assessment: Reviewing the Basics. Retrieved July 16, 2016, from

7. High-Stakes

7.1. Definition

7.1.1. A high-stakes assessment is an assessment that has meaningful consequences.

7.2. Purpose

7.2.1. High-stakes assessments have many purposes. Tests such as SATs are used as a final evaluation of students an can effect college acceptance. Sometimes high-stakes assessments are given to determine if a student will be retained in their current grade level or allowed to advance to the next grade level. States use standardized tests as high-stakes assessments to evaluated schools for funding related purposes.

7.3. Advantages

7.3.1. - A good performance on a high-stakes test can have very positive effects

7.4. Disadvantages

7.4.1. - A poor performance can have disastrous results, including failure to graduate, failure to get accepted to future programs

7.4.2. - Can be tremendously stressful on students

7.4.3. - Can promote schools or districts to focus less on subjects that do not have state wide high-stakes tests

7.5. Of vs For

7.5.1. High-stakes assessments are assessments OF learning. They are generally summative assessments used to determine the performance level of a student or school.

7.6. Example

7.6.1. Examples of high-stakes assessments include state standardized tests and SATs.

7.7. Citations

7.7.1. Johnson, D., & Johnson, B. (n.d.). High Stakes Testing. Retrieved July 16, 2016, from

7.7.2. Munoz, R. (n.d.). High Stakes Testing Pros and Cons. Retrieved July 16, 2016, from

8. Portfolio

8.1. Definition

8.1.1. A form of authentic assessment, the portfolio assessment is a collection of student created works that demonstrate their skill and knowledge of a given subject.

8.2. Purpose

8.2.1. The purpose of the portfolio assessment is for students and teachers to share in the review and documentation processes that are used to evaluate student progress.

8.3. Advantages

8.3.1. - Greater feedback than a percentage based or letter grade evaluation

8.3.2. - Promotes a dialogue between students and their teachers

8.3.3. - Provides students with an authentic method to demonstrate skills and performance

8.4. Disadvantages

8.4.1. - Can be a time consuming process for teachers

8.4.2. - Formative nature of the assessment can be used to avoid accountability

8.5. Of vs For

8.5.1. Portfolio assessments are assessments FOR learning. They are typically formative assessments that are collected to be used by students to assess themselves and understand the areas they need to improve upon.

8.6. Example

8.6.1. An example of a portfolio assessment would be a collection of short papers on topics presented throughout the course. These papers would be reviewed by the teacher and feedback would be given to the student. As the course progresses and assessments added to the portfolio an evaluation would be given based on the improvements demonstrated within the portfolio materials.

8.7. Citations

8.7.1. Portfolio Assessment Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2016, from

8.7.2. Fernsten, L. (n.d.). Portfolio Assessment. Retrieved July 16, 2016, from

9. Authentic

9.1. Definition

9.1.1. An authentic assessment is one in which students apply their abilities in an authentic, real-world context.

9.2. Purpose

9.2.1. The purpose of an authentic assessment is for the student to demonstrate an ability to integrate what they have learned in school to real-world situations.

9.3. Advantages

9.3.1. - Promotes analytical skills

9.3.2. - Integrates school with real-world situations

9.3.3. - Demonstrates importance of the content outside of school

9.4. Disadvantages

9.4.1. - Can be subjectively evaluated

9.5. Of vs For

9.5.1. Authentic assessments are assessments FOR learning. Along with evaluating student performance, they are used to demonstrate to the student the real-world applications of the content they are learning, and allow the student to receive feedback that they can apply outside of school.

9.6. Example

9.6.1. An example of an authentic assessment would be to have students find something in their home that has some measure of historical significance. Students would need to identify the significance of the item and explain how it has an effect on them (why its in their home).

9.7. Citations

9.7.1. Authentic Assessment Overview. (n.d.). Retrieved July 16, 2016, from