Earth Science

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Earth Science by Mind Map: Earth Science

1. Earth in Space

1.1. Hypotheses

1.1.1. Geocentric Orbit The sun revolves around Earth

1.1.2. Heliocentric Orbit Earth and other planets revolve around the sun. Confirmed through Galileo's observation of Venus.

1.2. Earth

1.2.1. A small rocky planet where the existence of life is abundant.

1.2.2. Unique characteristics Liquid water life - sustaining gases Gravity and protective atmosphere strong magnetic field

1.3. Stars

1.3.1. Sun A medium sized star and one of the billion stars in the Milky Way. Particles out of the scattered materials after a supernova.

1.3.2. Stars definition The distance between Earth and stars can be determined. (LUMINOSITY) The  brighter the stars, the closer Earth is The dimmer the stars, the farther Earth is Doppler Effect The apparent change in the frequency of sound waves or light waves.

1.3.3. Elements Hydrogen Oxygen Carbon

1.3.4. They vary in size and age

1.3.5. Nuclear Fusion To form helium Stars burn up when hydrogen is used up.

1.3.6. Supernova Massive explosion of a star

1.4. Big Bang Theory

1.4.1. The beginning of the universe started with a big explosion which is possibly a supernova.

1.5. Sun

1.5.1. Components Hydrogen Helium

1.5.2. 99.8% total mass of the solar system

1.5.3. Magnetic field The disruption produces... Sunspots Solar flares

1.5.4. Sunspot cycle Caused by the rotation of the sun and it is formed in a span of eleven years. No rotation, less sunspot activity

1.5.5. Solar wind Emitted charged particles from sun. Solar wind + magnetic field = aurora

1.6. Planets

1.6.1. Terrestrial Composed of rocks Divided into compositional layers Crust Mantle Core Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars

1.6.2. Jovian Gas giants Have thick atmosphere Many moons and rings Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune

1.7. Geothermal Gradient

1.7.1. Earth's temp increases with depth

1.7.2. Large planets still remain hot

1.7.3. Radioactive decay of elements in Earth's interior

1.7.4. All terrestrial planets cooled following formation

2. Plate Tectonics

2.1. Continental Drift

2.1.1. Continents drifted from each other

2.1.2. Wegener's Theory The continents had come together to form a single supercontinent landmass he named Pangaea

2.1.3. Matching Features Distribution of plant and animal fossils Mountain belts can be formed when pangaea is connected Opposing edges fit like puzzle pieces Unusual rock formation Evidence of thick ice sheets Rocks formed in tropical conditions in America, near the equator

2.2. Contracting Earth

2.2.1. Planet Earth slowly cools and contracts as heat of formation is lost.

2.3. Pangaea

2.3.1. Laurasia

2.3.2. Gondwanaland

2.4. Plate Tectonics Concept Survey

2.4.1. Seafloor topography

2.4.2. Age of the seafloor

2.4.3. Heat flow

2.4.4. Volcanoes

2.4.5. Earthquakes

2.5. Continental Plates

2.5.1. Eurasian

2.5.2. African

2.5.3. North America

2.5.4. South America

2.5.5. Nazca

2.5.6. Pacific

2.5.7. Indo - Australia/Indian Australia

2.5.8. Antartic

2.6. Seafloor topography key features

2.6.1. Continental shelf

2.6.2. Abyssal plain

2.6.3. Oceanic Ridge

2.6.4. Oceanic Trench

2.7. Age of seafloor

2.7.1. Rock varies symetrically

2.7.2. Rocks of the seafloor are young compared to most rocks on the continents

2.8. Trenches

2.8.1. Earthquakes become deeper with distance from trenches

2.8.2. The longer the trench, the stronger the earthquake

2.9. Lithosphere

2.9.1. Crust

2.9.2. Uppermantle

2.9.3. Melting of rocks

2.10. Types

2.10.1. Divergent

2.10.2. Convergent

2.10.3. Transform

3. Rocks and Minerals

3.1. Ideas

3.1.1. Neptunism Rocks formed in a global ocean

3.1.2. Plutonism Rocks formed from Earth's interior

3.2. Rock formation involves

3.2.1. Physical disintegration of raw materials

3.2.2. chemical changes

3.2.3. thermal effects

3.3. Rocks

3.3.1. Rocks are made of minerals 20 common minerals Minerals are made of elements Atoms elements bond to form minerals Minerals are naturally occurring

3.4. Rock Characteristics

3.4.1. Crystal form

3.4.2. Cleavage

3.4.3. Hardness

3.4.4. Color

3.4.5. Streak

3.4.6. Luster

3.5. Kinds of rocks

3.5.1. Igneous rocks volcanic rocks plutonic rocks

3.5.2. Sedimentary rocks Clastic formed through... Chemical formed when minerals precipitate Biochemical formed from dead organisms

3.5.3. Metamorphic rocks Contact metamorphism increase in temperature Regional metamorphism increase in temperature and pressure

3.6. Rock cycle

3.6.1. Links igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks

4. Volcanoes and Other Mountains

4.1. Magma Viscosity

4.1.1. Viscosity The resistance to FLOW

4.1.2. Higher Viscosity, Low temperature

4.1.3. Lower Viscosity, High temperature

4.1.4. Silica Content Low Silica, Low Viscosity High Silica, High Viscosity

4.2. Molten Rock

4.2.1. Magma Below the surface

4.2.2. Lava At the surface

4.3. Types of Magma

4.3.1. Basaltic Magma Partial melting parts of the Asthenosphere Below Oceanic ridge or hot spots Low Viscosity Less than 53% silica content 1,100 - 1,250 degrees Celsius

4.3.2. Rhyolitic Magma Partial melting of the continental crust Divergent Boundary/Continental Rift High Viscosity More than 68% silica content 700 - 850 degrees Celsius

4.3.3. Andesitic Magma Partial melting of the mantle mixed with water Located at Subduction zones Intermediate Viscosity 53 - 68% silica content 800 - 1,100 degrees Celsius

4.4. Cascade Mountains

4.4.1. Volcanic Arc in the Pacific Northwest

4.5. Products of Volcanic Eruptions

4.5.1. Airborne Lateral Blast Tephra Volcanic Gases

4.5.2. Flows on Land Lava Pyroclastic flows Lahars

4.6. Types of Volcanoes

4.6.1. Shield Volcanoes

4.6.2. Stratovolcanoes

4.6.3. Cindercone Volcanoes

4.7. Other Volcanic Products

4.7.1. Caldera

4.7.2. Lava Plateau

4.7.3. Geyser

4.7.4. Hot spring

4.7.5. Mud volcano

4.7.6. Fumerole

4.8. Isostasy

4.8.1. It is the balance between topography of the Earth's surface and thickness and density of underlying rocks.

4.8.2. Elevation only changes by 20% of added/material.

4.8.3. It compensates for added material by building a bigger root or for lost material by raising the pile.

5. Earthquakes

5.1. Fault movements

5.1.1. Driven by stress

5.1.2. Recurrence interval time to build up stress

5.1.3. Seismic waves vibrations caused by an earthquake Time Interval The time it takes to reach the seismograph

5.2. Surface waves

5.2.1. On surface and last recorded

5.2.2. Reyleigh Vertical movement

5.2.3. Love Side to side movement

5.3. Body waves

5.3.1. Beneath surface

5.3.2. P waves (Primary) First to arrive at seismograph

5.3.3. S waves (Secondary) Arrives after P waves

5.4. Parts

5.4.1. Focus

5.4.2. Epicenter

5.4.3. Fault scarp

5.4.4. Stream channels normal Vibrate perpendicular to direction reverse strike - slip

5.5. Earthquake size

5.5.1. Can be determined by measuring the amplitude of the seismic waves

5.6. Measuring Earthquakes

5.6.1. Magnitude Shaking of the ground Richter scale

5.6.2. Intensity Effects of earthquake Population Building codes Ground material Distance Mercalli scale

5.7. Hazards associated w/ earthquake

5.7.1. Ground shaking

5.7.2. Aftershock

5.7.3. Landslides

5.7.4. Liquefaction

5.7.5. Elevation changes

5.8. Additional

5.8.1. Mega earthquakes occur along Subduction Zones

5.8.2. Fault types Normal Reverse Strike - slip

6. Geologic Time

6.1. Relative Time

6.1.1. which came first, which came second,...

6.1.2. Superposition Rocks at the bottom are the oldest

6.1.3. Cross - cutting Young rocks can cut old rocks

6.1.4. Inclusion Some old rock particles are mixed in young rocks

6.2. James Hutton

6.2.1. created the concept of geologic time Landscapes remained unchanged with the passage of time.

6.3. Geologic Time

6.3.1. Earth's past is divided into three big chunks of time known as eons Archean Proterozoic Phanerozoic

6.3.2. Eras Pre - Cambrian Paleozoic Mesozoic Cenozoic

6.4. Mass Extinctions

6.4.1. Events in which large numbers of species die

6.4.2. Cretaceous - Tertiary Extinction Mammals were able to become the dominant group. Happened 65 million years ago

6.4.3. Permian - Triassic Extinction Killed of 96% of marine species and 70% of land species. The great dying

6.5. Numerical Time

6.5.1. Salinity of oceans

6.5.2. Conductive cooling of the Earth

6.5.3. Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different number of neutrons.

6.5.4. Radioactive Decay Serves as the clock for planet Earth Protons repel each other

6.5.5. Half - Life The time it takes for a parent isotope to form daughter isotopes

6.6. Rates of changes

6.6.1. Uniformitarianism Slow - acting processes happening today happened before.

6.6.2. Catastrophism Earth is affected by short duration Cannot be explained by physical or chemical processes

7. Lanslides and slopes

7.1. Natural Disaster

7.2. No human cause on natural phenomenon, no natural disasters

7.3. Mass Wasting

7.3.1. The downslope movement of rock materials under the influence of gravity.

7.3.2. Landslides Many rapid mass wasting activityies

7.4. Gravity

7.4.1. Makes the materials go down the slope

7.4.2. Components Parallel to the slope Perpendicular to the slope

7.5. Slope Failure

7.5.1. Cohesions Water holds up the grain of minerals and rocks

7.5.2. Excess Water

7.6. Slope Failure Processes

7.6.1. Rock fall

7.6.2. Rock slides

7.6.3. Slump

7.6.4. Debris Flow

8. The Atmosphere

8.1. The air mixed with specific gases around us

8.2. Protects the Earth from incoming radiation

8.3. Components

8.3.1. Nitrogen - 78%

8.3.2. Oxygen - 21%

8.3.3. Other Elements - 1%

8.4. No oxygen before the existence of life

8.5. Gravity holds 99% of atmospheric gases within 20 miles of the Earth's surface

8.6. Layers of the Atmosphere

8.6.1. Troposphere The weather system happens here Decrease in temperature as elevation goes highyer Air pollution collects here Gets its warmth from the Earth surface

8.6.2. Stratosphere Increase in temperature with altitude 20% of Earth's atmosphere Ozone layer resides here Protects Earth from incoming ultraviolet rays Cool air of troposphere can't rise here

8.6.3. Mesosphere Decrease in temperature Fewer ozone molecules Very little oxygen and nitrogen Burns up incoming debris

8.6.4. Thermosphere Hottest layer Blocks most harmful radiations like x rays and gamma rays Its ionized gases causes auroras

8.7. Solar Radiation

8.7.1. Sun emits electromagnetic radiation (EMR) which is described by wavelength and frequency Short wavelenghts UV rays Gamma rays X rays Visible Light Longer wavelengths infrared rays microwave rays radio wave rays

8.7.2. EMR It scatters It can be reflected Albedo It can be absorbed

8.8. Greenhouse Effects

8.8.1. Surfaces on Earth with low albedo absorb solar radiation and re-radiate it as infrared (long wavelength) radiation.

8.9. Role of Water

8.9.1. The only substance that can existin three different states Solid Closely spaced Liquid Small groups of molecules are attached and are rapid in movement creates some disorder Gas

8.9.2. The atmosphere contains small portion of water

8.9.3. Its molecules are dipolar There are opposite charges on each end of the molecule

8.9.4. Latent heat The amount of heat absorbed or released as water changes state

8.9.5. Heat absorption Melting Evaporation Sublimation

8.9.6. Heat release Freezing Condensation Deposition

8.10. Humidity

8.10.1. The amount of moisture in the air

8.10.2. It is determined by evaporation and condensation

8.10.3. Absolute Humidity mass of water (g) in a volume of air

8.10.4. Relative Humidity amount of water vapor in air compared to maximum mass of water vapor the air could hold if saturated

8.10.5. Cold air over warm water = steam fog

8.10.6. Warm air over cold air = cool air

8.11. Dewpoint

8.11.1. The temperature air must reach in order to become saturated

8.12. Atmospheric Pressure

8.12.1. The pressure exerted by the weight of overlying column of air

8.12.2. Air pressure declines with high altitude

8.12.3. Air pressure is influenced by air density

8.12.4. Air density The measurement of the mass of atoms and molecules of gases/volume of air

8.13. Clouds

8.13.1. Billions of tiny water droplets to combine and form rain, snow, or hail

8.13.2. Formation Air rises Cools Water condensation

8.13.3. Incoming solar radiation is absorbed

8.13.4. They drop warm temperature to Earth surface at night

8.14. Winds

8.14.1. Horizontal movement of air that arises from differences in air pressure

8.14.2. Frontal Lifting 2 large air masses of different densities meet Orographic Lifting Air is forced to rise over mountains Convergence Lifting Collision of 2 air masses with similar temperature forces some air upward

8.15. Pressure Gradient

8.15.1. The magnitude of the change in pressure between two points and distance between two points

8.16. Coriolis Effect

8.16.1. Winds deflect to the right of their course

8.16.2. It is slowed by frictional drag from the surface

9. Weathering and Soils

9.1. Weathering

9.1.1. The physical, chemical, and biological breakdown  of rocks and minerals

9.2. Types of Weathering

9.2.1. Physical Wedging Unloading

9.2.2. Chemical Dissolution Hydrolysis Oxidation

9.2.3. Biological Macroscopic Microscopic

9.3. Weathering Rates

9.3.1. Compositional control Weathering is faster when rocks have weaker materials

9.3.2. Rock property control Weathering is faster when rocks are more porous

9.3.3. Climate control Chemical weathering is faster in tropical regions Higher elevations are more risk in physical weathering

9.4. Soils

9.4.1. Stratified mixture of regolith that includes enough organic material to support plant life.

9.4.2. Soil Profile A series of distinct soil horizons

9.4.3. Soil formation Rocks in the source area Temperature and amount of rain Biological activity occurring in an area

9.4.4. Soil fertility Thick soil is not necessarily fertile Fertility changes overtime depending on leaching and replacement of nutrients due to weathering Heavy rainfall can carry away soil nutrients

9.4.5. Soil Erosion and Conservation Soil forms very slowly and is often depicted faster than it can be formed Soil erosion rates are affected by climate rates (water and wind) and land use practices Erosion by wind and water occurs when soil particles are detached from soil column and transported away The amount and frequency of rainfall Wind velocity Character of soil Vegetation cover Slope of the land

9.4.6. Humans are agents in moving soils and sediments than all other natural processes.

10. Weather

10.1. The state of the atmosphere at any given time and space

10.2. Monsoon

10.3. Extreme Weather

10.3.1. This can threaten lives, disrupt transportation, and cause great loss of billions of pesos

10.3.2. Countries most affected by disasters are China, India, Indonesia, Philippines...

10.4. Meteorology

10.4.1. The study of the atmosphere and the weather

10.5. Air mases

10.5.1. Large volumes of air with similar temperature and pressure

10.5.2. Polar air masses can gain or lose heat and/or moisture as they move from one location to another

10.5.3. Types Continental Arctic/Antarctic air Continental Polar Air Continental Tropical Air Maritime Polar Air

10.6. Frontal Systems

10.6.1. The locations where air masses interact

10.6.2. Types Warm fronts Cold fronts Occluded fronts

10.7. Tornado

10.7.1. Narrow and funnel - shaped spirals of rapidly converging and rotating air that form in association with thunderstorms

10.7.2. Stages Early stage Friction slows wind at the ground surface, resulting in higher wind velocity moving upward from the surface Updraft stage Updrafts below a thunderstorm draw the spiraling horizontal winds upward to form a small cyclone, known as a mesocyclone Tornado stage Rotation within the mesocyclone forms smaller, more intense spiraling winds within a newly formed tornado, which then extend downward from a cloud base toward the ground surface

10.7.3. Tornadoes occur when thunderstorm activity is at an optimum across much of the nation

10.7.4. Fujita intensity scale measures and ranks the intensity of tornadoes

10.8. Hurricanes

10.9. Thunderstorms

10.9.1. Rains with accompanies of cracks of thunder and lightning or rattle of hailstorm

10.9.2. Ingredients in formation moisture in the atmosphere warm air lifting mechanism

10.9.3. Formation Cumulus stage Early cloud development Updrafts rapid upward movement of a column of air within the cloud carry humid air higher, colder levels, and condensation occurs Mature stage The top of the cloud may reach altitudes of up to 15 kilometers Column of downward - moving air called a downdraft Dissipating stage The cooler air provides stability, prevents updrafts needed to sustain the cloud, and signals start the dissipation process

10.10. Midlatitude Cyclones

10.10.1. The regional - scale low - pressure system