Foundations of Education

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Foundations of Education by Mind Map: Foundations of Education

1. Sociological Perspectives

1.1. Effects of Schooling

1.1.1. Curriculum is determined by those who want to perpetuate certain values and beliefs

1.1.2. Not all students study the same curriculum

1.1.3. Curriculum determines who goes to college

1.1.4. Cultural transmission- selective channeling of opportunity and social mobility are determined at the school level and its curriculum.

1.1.5. TEACHER BEHAVIOR Teachers may have as many as 1000 interactions with students on a daily basis Teachers expectations directly influence student achievement Self-fulfilling prophecy has a direct impact on student success The more teachers demanded from their students results in higher self esteem and success.

1.1.6. STUDENT PEER GROUPS AND ALIENATION Rebellious students and violence in schools Nerds, coolness, athletes 4 MAJOR TYPES OF COLLEGE STUDENTS Careerist which are middle and upper middle class and do not have good college experience Intellectuals come from highly educated families, earned academic honors, and are politcally motivated. Strivers come from middle class and lower class harder workers and did not have great academic success but had a sense of accomplishment with their degree. The Unconnected came from all backgrounds and did not participate or achieve any success and were dissatisfied.

1.1.7. De facto Segregation Racial integration benefits minorities more than the majority People segregate themselves into their comfort areas Integration does not seem to harm the majority GENDER BIASES Men are still paid more for equivalent jobs Academics are leveling between sexes Schools are still perpetuating gender inequalities.

1.2. Theoretical Perspectives

1.2.1. Functional- poses that society is best when a consensus rules

1.2.2. Interactional- poses that society develops as a result of interactions between students and teachers Schools are middle class organizations and lower social classes are at a disadvantage. KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE- The higher the social class of a student the higher level of educational achievement. Differences between schools is not a significant impact. Academically oriented schools have higher levels of student achievement. EMPLOYMENT, EDUCATION AND MOBILITY- More education results in better jobs and opportunities. Educations is the great equalizer in the status race. Where you attend has great impetus. Poor and rich people see no effect on their social status as a result of their education attainment. Competitions is not fair. Winners win with exceptions and losers are dropped from the competition. Rules are not always fair.

1.2.3. Conflict- poses that influential groups impose their will on subordinate groups. Schools are oppressive and students are rebellious. They are forced to attend. College degrees are primarily status symbols and do not indicate actual achievement.

1.3. Persell's model for analyzing school and societies relationship

1.3.1. Intrapsychic- individual thoughts, beliefs, values, and feelings which are shaped by societies institutions.

1.3.2. Interpersonal- all the processes, symbols interactions, within such organizations such as face to face interactions, gestures, and rituals.

1.3.3. Institutional level- family, schools, churches, business, government, and media

1.3.4. Societal level- most general levels of society such as its political and economic systems, levels of development, and system of social stratification.

1.4. Sociology- Understanding how social aspirations and fears force people to ask questions about societies and culture in which they live.

1.5. School and Society Relations

1.5.1. Schools are agents of cultural social transmisson

1.5.2. Schools stratify students into tracks by curricular placements which results in how they are successful

1.5.3. Schools select students for educational mobility.

1.5.4. Students are taught the values and beliefs of the society for them to think and act like other members of society

2. Curriculum and Pedagogy *see notes*

2.1. Conservativist

2.1.1. should be teaching what is fundamentally basic to common culture

2.1.2. say Social efficiency has diluted the curriculum and has lost purpose Social Meliorists-reform society through schools (social reconstruction) Communities reflect what is important social class. comp of the school and community determine the value in the curriculum

2.1.3. Argue that multicultural curriculum had diluted Western civilization values.

2.2. Social Efficiency

2.2.1. Reflect and teach what is important to be functional in society

2.3. Influences on curriculum *see notes*

2.3.1. -Evolutionists

2.3.2. Sociology of the curriculum

2.3.3. Social order determines curriculum

2.4. Pedagogic Influences

2.4.1. Mimetic and Transformative approaches to teaching

3. Philosophy of Education

3.1. Philosophical approach aids teachers in

3.1.1. selecting knowledge for the classroom

3.1.2. ordering their classroom

3.1.3. interacting with students. peers. parents, and adminstrators

3.1.4. selecting values for their classroom

3.1.5. understanding in who they are and why they do what they do

3.2. Idealism (Socrates and Plato)- Encourage students to search for the truth. with truth comes responsibility. Education is a transformation.

3.2.1. ROLE OF THE TEACHER- role model in the classroom, to provoke thought, to bring out what is already in their mind.

3.2.2. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION- Discussion, Questioning, Lecture on material not presented in text

3.2.3. CURRICULUM- Study the great works, all new problems have their roots in the past, study history, great literature, sciences, math, history, philosophy, a basic core foundation

3.3. Realism- the material world is real, it exist without anyone perceiving it, the real world exists before ideas exist, Aristotle develop a system of logical thinking.

3.3.1. GOAL OF EDUCATION- understand the real world then apply science and logic to solve problems

3.3.2. ROLE OF THE TEACHER- present ideas in a clear consistent manner, enable students to examine from an objective approach

3.3.3. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION- lecture, question and answer, discussion

3.3.4. CURRICULUM- consist of a basic body of knowledge

3.4. Pragmatism-learning through experience , "what is practical has meaning and value", the approach is learning by scientific inquiry, encourages people to find processes that work to achieve their desired outcome

3.4.1. PHILOSOPHIES BORN FROM PRAGMATISM- Progressivism- John Dewey, Social Reconstructionism- George Counts

3.4.2. GOAL OF EDUCATION- provide students with the knowledge to improve society.

3.4.3. ROLE OF THE TEACHER- facilitator of learning activities

3.4.4. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION- learn individually as well as in groups

3.4.5. CURRICULUM- integrated core subjects, teaching across the curriculum.

3.5. Existentialism and Phenomenology- existence precedes essence, We are who we are as a result of our decisions, perceptions of the world is based on one's ability to make sense of it

3.5.1. GOAL OF EDUCATION- focus is on the individual, cognitively and effectively. Education liberates the individual from a chaotic world

3.5.2. ROLE OF THE TEACHER- the reflective teacher enables students to be reflective student. It is very personal teacher/student relationship. Students must become "wide awake"

3.5.3. METHODS OF INSTRUCTION- Each student has a different learning style. Help students understand the world through posing questions, generating activities and working together

3.5.4. CURRICULUM- Humanities are heavily emphasized students should be exposed to the harsh and good realities of the world

3.6. Neo-Marxism - The purpose of education in a capitalist society is to perpetuate the ideology of the dominant class

3.6.1. GOAL OF EDUCATION- schools perpetuate the ideology of the dominant society and legitimize it to all other groups. Education enables individuals to understand the weaknesses of the dominant society and propose alternatives

3.6.2. ROLE OF THE TEACHER- engage students to critically examine the world which is similar to "wide awakenesss"

3.6.3. CURRICULUM- socially constructed, teachers must have a command of how the curriculum can be socially manipulated

3.7. Post Modernists and Critical Theory

3.7.1. GOAL OF EDUCATION- explore differences and to explore possibilities that may seem inherently impossible. Working together to achieve balance and equity through democratic transformation

3.7.2. ROLE OF THE TEACHER- an agent of change

3.7.3. CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTION- democratic processes, teachers, students, communities are all involved in the process of education, schools and curriculum are agents of change

4. Equality of Opportunity

4.1. Social Stratification

4.1.1. Estate System

4.1.2. Class systems

4.1.3. Caste

4.2. Class

4.3. Race

4.4. Gender

4.5. Testing

4.6. Special Needs

4.7. The Coleman Study

4.8. School Segregation

4.9. Educational Attainment and Economic Achievement


5.1. Critical Literacy- DECLINE OF LITERACY DUE TO: teaching to the test, pass them on due to age and no place to go, schools become overcrowded, and raising academic standards for the wrong people.

5.2. ACHIEVEMENT GAP- The unequal outputs of educational results and benefits. CAUSED BY: funding, environment, teacher quality, parents, etc...

5.2.1. Teaching gaps have widened due to testing

5.2.2. Elementary Secondary Education Act 1965- Enacted by LBJ. Emphasizes equal access to education and establishes high standards and accountability.

5.3. ASSESSMENT ISSUES-  teaching to the test, authentic assessments.

5.4. Inadequate schools

5.4.1. Affluent schools provide better social mobility than poorer schools

5.5. Tracking-placement of students in curricular programs based on students' abilities and inclinations.

5.5.1. Tracking has a direct effect on student expectations and success

6. Educational Reform

6.1. Characteristics of Highly Effective Teachers

6.2. Two waves of Attack from 1980s to 2012

6.3. Fed Involvement

6.4. Approaches to Reform

6.5. School Based Reform

6.6. Teacher Education Programs

6.7. Societal, Community, Economic, and Political Reforms

6.8. School Finance Reforms

6.9. Full Service Schools

6.10. Connecting School, Community, and Societal Reforms

7. Politics of Education **see notes for info**

7.1. Governments must intervene to ensure equality in education and economies.

7.1.1. Gov. must address societal issues

7.1.2. Government should be able to provide all citizens with minimally acceptable standard of living.

7.2. Capitalism and free economies must stay in check.

7.2.1. Economies unregulated cause unfair distribution of wealth and opportunities

7.2.2. Capitalism and free economy is the root of the educational problems.

7.3. Problems in education and economy are causes of social disorder and social class perpetuation.

7.3.1. Issues must be addressed at the social class level not the individual.

7.4. 3 main political perspectives

7.4.1. Conservative

7.4.2. Liberal

7.4.3. Neo- Liberal

7.4.4. Radical


8.1. Colonial Era

8.1.1. Old Deluder Satan Law 1647- Towns of certain sizes require a schoolmaster to come and teach local children.

8.1.2. Colleges were established before country was (Harvard- 1636) ( Yale 1701)

8.1.3. Meritocracy (skilled people) provided for higher education Dame schools were created for girls Secondary schools were for boys and the elite Latin Grammar Schools Education in the South was mainly intended for upper class (plantation owners)

8.1.4. Franklin and Jefferson supported public education.

8.1.5. Wealthy saw education as perpetuating the ruling class, religion, utilitarian, civics.

8.2. Cycles of Reform- Progressive v. Traditional

8.2.1. Brown V. BOE- declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. 1993- IDEA- Individuals w/ Disabilities Education Act. Children with disabilities are entitled to an appropriate, free public education and each child's education will be monitored specifically for their needs. Morill Act- established land in each and every state for public school.

8.2.2. Equality and Equity Civil Rights Act 1963 Sputnik and Space race influences need for excellence in 1957-1960's as result schools went back to individual needs.

8.3. Rise of Common School

8.3.1. Horace Mann lobbied to create 1st BOE

8.3.2. Public schools were established for public stability and social mobility Women and slaves education was limited women were educated for domestic purposes slaves were not educated with the exception of a few Northern states that had special schools for African Americans Emma Hart Willard est. Troy Female Seminary in NY in 1821 Mount Holyoke Seminary 1837- had same requirements as male colleges University of Iowa- 1st to admit women in 1856.

8.3.3. Normal schools were created for teacher education

8.3.4. Right to vote was restricted to all men except slaves and emotionally disturbed

8.4. Plessy V. Ferguson-  It upheld state racial segregation laws for public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal"

8.5. The Committee of Ten 1893

8.6. 4 themes for High School purposes

8.7. Urbanization and Progressivism

8.7.1. Embryonic Society- mini schools

8.7.2. Industrial revolution caused the need for educated workers. Gap between rich and poor widened.

8.7.3. John Dewey, the father of modern education, emphasized the needs of the individual to create a better society.

9. Schools as Organizations

9.1. Degree of Openness (private)

9.1.1. There are app. 28,200 elementary and secondary private schools in the US

9.1.2. Private schools constitute 25% of all schools and educate only 10% of all students

9.1.3. In 1930's there were less than 10,000 private schools

9.1.4. In 2009, there were 21,780 private elementary and secondary schools.

9.1.5. Most private schools are located on the east and west coasts.

9.1.6. Connecticut has the most and Wyoming has the least

9.1.7. In 1980's and 1990's studies indicate private schools were better learning environments


9.2.1. In 19th Century England the rich had education in private schools, the poor did not get educated.

9.2.2. The establishment of a national education system was opposed by the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church.

9.2.3. The 1944 Education created free elem. and sec. education

9.3. JAPAN

9.3.1. In the 1880's, Japan centralized its educational system. Focused on the economic purpose to drive educational purposes.


9.4.1. separate social organizations

9.4.2. teacher are in conflict with students. Curriculum v. social goals of students

9.4.3. Administrators and teachers are in conflict. Structure v. teaching

9.4.4. Communities are in conflict with administration


9.5.1. German students are sorted at an early age to be tracked in appropriate careers.

9.5.2. Hauptschule- lower level blue collar work

9.5.3. Realschule- lower level white collar and technical positions

9.5.4. Gymnasium- intellectual and high level management positions


9.6.1. France has a very elitists educational system.


9.7.1. Finland had historically had the highest scores on math, science, literary exams

9.7.2. Racial and social classes have very few discrepancies across test scores in all areas.

9.7.3. Has high regard for teachers and has competitive salaries, large amount of autonomy, teachers have a high degree of job satisfaction, teacher retention and shortages are not issues.


9.8.1. Very centralized system where all students would become productive citizens leaving no one in need

9.9. Degree of Openness (public)

9.9.1. very few academic impediments exist to graduate high school but many social impediments

9.9.2. very democratic

9.9.3. open to all and very inclusive

10. Educational Inequality

10.1. American society resembles a triangle where most people are at the base

10.1.1. The top 20% in the US possess 75% of the wealth

10.1.2. The top 2% of the world population possess 80% of the wealth.

10.2. 1/3 of children are at risk of failing

10.3. 1/4 of preschools children live in poverty

10.4. 15 million are reared by single mothers

10.5. Sociological Explanations

10.5.1. Conflict Theorists

10.5.2. Interactionists Theorists

10.5.3. Functionalist theorist

10.6. Student-centered factors

10.7. School-Centered factors


11.1. What is taught and how do we  teacher it?

11.1.1. Social Influences

11.1.2. Political Influences

11.1.3. Societies' influence

11.1.4. Cultural Influences

11.1.5. Special Influences

11.2. Historical Information

11.2.1. Idealist Teach the great works of mankind

11.2.2. Conservativist return to humanist foundations Teach math, science, reading, history, foreign languages, and emphasize the influence of western civilization. The conservativists of the 1980s and 90s say we should teach  what is fundamentally basic to a common culture. Social Efficiency Curriculum Conservatives say that social efficiency has diluted  the curriculum to the point that it has lost the purpose of transmitting one common culture.