SPED 4452 - Elissa Baago

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SPED 4452 - Elissa Baago by Mind Map: SPED 4452 - Elissa Baago

1. Chapter 2 - Approaches to Learning and Teaching

1.1. - using applied behavior analysis teachers focus on observable behaviors and consequences to negative behaviors

1.2. - use reinforcers of positive behavior to increase the on-going behavior

1.3. - decrease wrongful behavior with consequences

1.4. - Cognitive Strategy Instruction (CSI) collaboration believes that cognitive behaviors can be changed, if necessary

2. Cognitive Strategy Instruction

2.1. - helps improve academic achievement for students with learning disabilites

2.2. - some teachers use the SRSD model that consists of a few stages. SRSD stands for self-regulated strategy development, teachers are hoping to evolve more learners to be self guided.

2.3. - stage 1: develop and activate background knowledge which is used in two steps, define the student's skills and assess their way of performing the skills learned

2.4. - stage 2: discuss the strategy. They say when teachers discuss the strategy, it's a way of "selling" it so the students "buy" into the strategy. Teachers should adapt the strategy to each students level of learning.

2.5. - stage 3: model the strategy. Teachers should voice the process step by step so learners can understand the process and achieve it successfully. Using "why" and "how" questions to make sure the students are acquiring what needs to be done.

2.6. - stage 4: memorize the strategy. The goal is for the students to be able to memorize these strategy steps so they become more natural in the process of SRSD.

2.7. - stage 5: support the strategy. Teacher and student work together until the strategy becomes natural and fluent. All the previous stages come together in stage 5. Scaffolding of the process is implemented at this point to ease the student into it.

2.8. The three final steps of strategy instruction are that is should be seen as a process, it depends on collaboration with teacher and student, and teacher collaboration.

3. Putting Students on the path to learning

3.1. - full guided instruction is the most effective way for students to understand what is needed from them for success.

3.2. - partial guidance is a lot less effective than fully guided. It's important to show and tell what is expected. Students discover less information compared to how much information is instructed.

3.3. - minimally guided instruction can increase achievement gap, which is crucial to avoid.

3.4. - guided instruction is best for teaching novel information and skills

4. Principles of Instruction

4.1. - there are ten principle based instructions that come from three sources: research of cognitive science (how our brains learn), research on master teachers (high successful teachers), and research on cognitive supports (to help students)

4.2. - Principle 1: begin a lesson with a short review of previous learning. Teachers should have student acquire, rehearse, and connect knowledge.

4.3. Principle 2: present new material in small steps. Don't overwhelm students with new stuff.

4.4. - Principle 3: ask a large number of questions. Encourage questions at all times.

4.5. - Principle 4: provide models. Model and demonstrate what you expect from students.

4.6. - Principle 5: guide student practice. With effective rehearsal students recall more info.

4.7. - Principle 6: check for student understanding. Ask students several questions.

4.8. - Principle 7: obtain a high success rate. Challenge the students to what they can achieve.

4.9. - Principle 8: provide scaffolds for different tasks. It helps with cognitive apprenticeship.

4.10. - Principle 9: require and monitor different practice. Individual and group work time.

4.11. - Principe 10: engage students in monthly or weekly review. Even out the amount of time per subject.

5. Differentiated Instruction

5.1. - this is an approach where teachers adjust their curriculum based on the needs of there learning abilities.

5.2. - this is more of a framework that allows several types of strategies to be implemented for students needs of learning.

5.3. - teachers adjust three main content areas within this approach: content, process, and product

5.4. - this is an evidence-based practice (EBP)

5.5. - grouping students on similar learning levels helps with differentiated instruction and creating a goal with on-going assessments

5.6. - "The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (p.11)”]Assessment always has more to do with helping students grow than with cataloging their mistakes." (Carol Ann Tomlinson)

6. Universal Design for Learning (UDL)

6.1. - allows the student to learn in the way thats helpful for them, reaches all level of learners

6.2. - teachers deliver content in different ways and students engage and interact in the content

6.3. - there are three basic principles of UDL: representation, action & expression, and  engagement

6.4. - when the learning goal is addressed teachers can allow students to learn the way the fits them best

7. Bloom's Taxonomy

7.1. - Created to promote higher levels of thinking

7.2. - There are three domains of learning: cognitive, affective, psychomotor

7.3. - Cognitive: mental skills, development of intellectual skills. This focuses on recollection of facts and information.

7.4. - Affective: growth in feelings or emotions, how we value and appreciate things and people. Organization also fits into this category.

7.5. - Psychomotor: manual skills, physical movement of motor skills. This ranges from simply to complex skills.

7.6. These learning behaviors are taught as goals of a learning process.