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Scrum Guide by Mind Map: Scrum Guide

1. Purpose of the Scrum Guide

1.1. Scrum is a framework for developing and sustaining complex products.

1.1.1. See more about Cynefin Framework

1.2. This definition consists of Scrum’s roles, events, artifacts, and the rules that bind them together.

1.3. Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland developed Scrum

2. Definition of Scrum

2.1. A framework within which people can address complex adaptive problems, while productively and creatively delivering products of the highest possible value.

2.1.1. The Scrum framework consists of Scrum Teams and their associated roles, events, artifacts, and rules.

2.2. Scrum Is

2.2.1. Lightweight

2.2.2. Simple to understand

2.2.3. Difficult to master

2.2.4. Scrum is a process framework that has been used to manage complex product development since the early 1990s.

2.2.5. Scrum is not a process or a technique for building products;

2.2.6. it is a framework within which you can employ various processes and techniques

2.2.7. Scrum makes clear the relative efficacy of your product management and development practices so that you can improve.

2.3. Scrum Theory

2.3.1. Scrum employs an iterative, incremental approach to optimize predictability and control risk.

2.3.2. Scrum is founded on empirical process control theory, or empiricism. Empiricism asserts that knowledge comes from experience and making decisions based on what is known.

2.3.3. Scrum prescribes four formal events for inspection and adaptation Sprint Planning Daily Scrum Sprint Review Sprint Retrospective

3. Scrum Values

3.1. Commitment

3.1.1. People personally commit to achieving the goals of the Scrum Team.

3.2. Courage

3.2.1. The Scrum Team members have courage to do the right thing and work on tough problems.

3.3. Focus

3.3.1. Everyone focuses on the work of the Sprint and the goals of the Scrum Team.

3.4. Openness

3.4.1. The Scrum Team and its stakeholders agree to be open about all the work and the challenges with performing the work.

3.5. Respect

3.5.1. Scrum Team members respect each other to be capable, independent people.

3.6. Successful use of Scrum depends on people becoming more proficient in living these five values.

4. The Scrum Team

4.1. Product Owner

4.1.1. is responsible for maximizing the value of the product and the work of the Development Team.

4.1.2. is the sole person responsible for managing the Product Backlog

4.1.3. is one person, not a committee

4.1.4. The Product Owner may represent the desires of a committee in the Product Backlog, but those wanting to change a Product Backlog item’s priority must address the Product Owner.

4.1.5. No one is allowed to tell the Development Team to work from a different set of requirements, and the Development Team isn’t allowed to act on what anyone else says.

4.1.6. Product Backlog management includes Clearly expressing Product Backlog items Ordering the items in the Product Backlog to best achieve goals and missions Optimizing the value of the work the Development Team performs; Ensuring that the Product Backlog is visible, transparent, and clear to all, and shows what the Scrum Team will work on next Ensuring the Development Team understands items in the Product Backlog to the level needed.

4.2. Development Team

4.2.1. consists of professionals who do the work of delivering a potentially releasable Increment of “Done” product at the end of each Sprint Only members of the Development Team create the Increment.

4.2.2. are structured and empowered by the organization to organize and manage their own work.

4.2.3. The resulting synergy optimizes the Development Team’s overall efficiency and effectiveness.

4.2.4. have the following characteristics They are self-organizing. No one (not even the Scrum Master) tells the Development Team how to turn Product Backlog into Increments of potentially releasable functionality are cross-functional, with all of the skills as a team necessary to create a product Increment; Scrum recognizes no titles for Development Team members other than Developer, there are no exceptions to this rule; no sub-teams in the Development Team Individual Development Team members may have specialized skills and areas of focus, but accountability belongs to the Development Team as a whole.

4.3. Scrum Master

4.3.1. is responsible for ensuring Scrum is understood and enacted do this by ensuring that the Scrum Team adheres to Scrum theory, practices, and rules.

4.3.2. is a servant-leader for the Scrum Team

4.3.3. helps those outside the Scrum Team understand which of their interactions with the Scrum Team are helpful and which aren’t.

4.3.4. helps everyone change these interactions to maximize the value created by the Scrum Team

4.3.5. Scrum Master Service to the Development Team Coaching the Development Team in self-organization and cross-functionality Helping the Development Team to create high-value products Removing impediments to the Development Team’s progress; Facilitating Scrum events as requested or needed Coaching the Development Team in organizational environments in which Scrum is not yet fully adopted and understood

4.3.6. Scrum Master Service to the Organization Leading and coaching the organization in its Scrum adoption Planning Scrum implementations within the organization Helping employees and stakeholders understand and enact Scrum and empirical product development; Causing change that increases the productivity of the Scrum Team Working with other Scrum Masters to increase the effectiveness of the application of Scrum in the organization

4.3.7. Scrum Master Service to the Product Owner Finding techniques for effective Product Backlog management; Helping the Scrum Team understand the need for clear and concise Product Backlog items; Understanding product planning in an empirical environment; Ensuring the Product Owner knows how to arrange the Product Backlog to maximize value; Understanding and practicing agility Facilitating Scrum events as requested or needed

4.4. Scrum Teams are self-organizing

4.4.1. Self-organizing teams choose how best to accomplish their work, rather than being directed by others outside the team.

4.5. Scrum Teams are cross-functional

4.5.1. Cross-functional teams have all competencies needed to accomplish the work without depending on others not part of the team.

4.6. Development Team Size

4.6.1. Fewer than three Development Team members decrease interaction and results in smaller productivity gains.

4.6.2. Having more than nine members requires too much coordination.

4.6.3. The Product Owner and Scrum Master roles are not included in this count unless they are also executing the work of the Sprint Backlog.

5. Scrum Pillars

5.1. Transparency

5.1.1. Significant aspects of the process must be visible to those responsible for the outcome.

5.1.2. Transparency requires those aspects be defined by a common standard so observers share a common understanding of what is being seen. A common language referring to the process must be shared by all participants Those performing the work and those accepting the work product must share a common definition of “Done”.

5.2. Inspection

5.2.1. Scrum users must frequently inspect Scrum artifacts and progress toward a Sprint Goal to detect undesirable variances. Their inspection should not be so frequent that inspection gets in the way of the work.

5.2.2. Inspections are most beneficial when diligently performed by skilled inspectors at the point of work.

5.3. Adaptation

5.3.1. If an inspector determines that one or more aspects of a process deviate outside acceptable limits, and that the resulting product will be unacceptable, the process or the material being processed must be adjusted. An adjustment must be made as soon as possible to minimize further deviation.

6. Scrum Events

6.1. All events are time-boxed

6.1.1. such that every event has a maximum duration

6.1.2. Once a Sprint begins, its duration is fixed and cannot be shortened or lengthened.

6.1.3. The remaining events may end whenever the purpose of the event is achieved ensuring an appropriate amount of time is spent without allowing waste in the process.

6.2. each event in Scrum is a formal opportunity to inspect and adapt something

6.3. Failure to include any of these events results in reduced transparency and is a lost opportunity to inspect and adapt.

6.4. Sprint

6.4.1. The heart of Scrum is a Sprint,

6.4.2. a time-box of one month or less during which a “Done”, useable, and potentially releasable product Increment is created.

6.4.3. A new Sprint starts immediately after the conclusion of the previous Sprint

6.4.4. Rules No changes are made that would endanger the Sprint Goal; Quality goals do not decrease Scope may be clarified and re-negotiated between the Product Owner and Development Team as more is learned

6.4.5. Each Sprint may be considered a project with no more than a one-month horizon. Sprints are limited to one calendar month. When a Sprint’s horizon is too long the definition of what is being built may change, complexity may rise, and risk may increase Sprints enable predictability by ensuring inspection and adaptation of progress toward a Sprint Goal at least every calendar month Sprints also limit risk to one calendar month of cost

6.4.6. Each Sprint has a definition of what is to be built

6.4.7. Cancelling a Sprint A Sprint can be cancelled before the Sprint time-box is over. Only the Product Owner has the authority to cancel the Sprint, although he or she may do so under influence from the stakeholders, the Development Team, or the Scrum Master A Sprint would be cancelled if the Sprint Goal becomes obsolete. a Sprint should be cancelled if it no longer makes sense given the circumstances. due to the short duration of Sprints, cancellation rarely makes sense When a Sprint is cancelled, any completed and “Done” Product Backlog items are reviewed All incomplete Product Backlog Items are re-estimated and put back on the Product Backlog Sprint cancellations are often traumatic to the Scrum Team, and are very uncommon

6.5. Sprint Planning

6.5.1. This plan is created by the collaborative work of the entire Scrum Team

6.5.2. Sprint Planning is time-boxed to a maximum of eight hours for a one-month Sprint.

6.5.3. The Scrum Master ensures that the event takes place and that attendants understand its purpose

6.5.4. The Scrum Master teaches the Scrum Team to keep it within the time-box

6.5.5. Sprint Planning answers the following What can be delivered in the Increment resulting from the upcoming Sprint? How will the work needed to deliver the Increment be achieved?

6.5.6. What can be done this Sprint? The Product Owner discusses the objective that the Sprint should achieve and the Product Backlog items that, if completed in the Sprint, would achieve the Sprint Goal. The Development Team works to forecast the functionality that will be developed during the Sprint. The number of items selected from the Product Backlog for the Sprint is solely up to the Development Team After the Development Team forecasts the Product Backlog items it will deliver in the Sprint, The Sprint Goal provide guidance to the Development Team on why it is building the Increment. Scrum Team crafts a Sprint Goal collaborates on understanding the work of the Sprint The Sprint Goal is an objective that will be met within the Sprint through the implementation of the Product Backlog,

6.5.7. How will the chosen work get done? Having set the Sprint Goal and selected the Product Backlog items for the Sprint, the Development Team decides how it will build this functionality into a “Done” product Increment during the Sprint. The Product Backlog items selected for this Sprint plus the plan for delivering them is called the Sprint Backlog. Work may be of varying size, or estimated effort. Work planned for the first days of the Sprint by the Development Team is decomposed by the end of this meeting, often to units of one day or less. The Development Team self-organizes to undertake the work in the Sprint Backlog, both during Sprint Planning and as needed throughout the Sprint If the Development Team determines it has too much or too little work, it may renegotiate the selected Product Backlog items with the Product Owner. The Development Team may also invite other people to attend the Sprint Planning in order to provide technical or domain advice. By the end of the Sprint Planning, the Development Team should be able to explain to the Product Owner and Scrum Master how it intends to work as a self-organizing team to accomplish the Sprint Goal and create the anticipated Increment.

6.5.8. Sprint Goal It provides guidance to the Development Team on why it is building the Increment. It is created during the Sprint Planning meeting it gives the Development Team some flexibility regarding the functionality implemented within the Sprint it can be any other coherence that causes the Development Team to work together rather than on separate initiatives As the Development Team works, it keeps the Sprint Goal in mind. If the work turns out to be different than the Development Team expected, they collaborate with the Product Owner to negotiate the scope of Sprint Backlog within the Sprint

6.6. Daily Scrums

6.6.1. is a 15-minute time-boxed event for the Development Team to synchronize activities and create a plan for the next 24 hours.

6.6.2. This is done by inspecting the work since the last Daily Scrum and forecasting the work that could be done before the next one

6.6.3. is held at the same time and place each day to reduce complexity

6.6.4. During the meeting, the Development Team members explain: What did I do yesterday that helped the Development Team meet the Sprint Goal? What will I do today to help the Development Team meet the Sprint Goal? Do I see any impediment that prevents me or the Development Team from meeting the Sprint Goal?

6.6.5. it is to inspect progress toward the Sprint Goal

6.6.6. it is to inspect how progress is trending toward completing the work in the Sprint Backlog.

6.6.7. it optimizes the probability that the Development Team will meet the Sprint Goal

6.6.8. Every day, the Development Team should understand how it intends to work together as a self-organizing team to accomplish the Sprint Goal and create the anticipated Increment by the end of the Sprint.

6.6.9. The Development Team or team members often meet immediately after the Daily Scrum for detailed discussions, or to adapt, or replan, the rest of the Sprint’s work.

6.6.10. The Scrum Master ensures that the Development Team has the meeting, but the Development Team is responsible for conducting the Daily Scrum.

6.6.11. The Scrum Master teaches the Development Team to keep the Daily Scrum within the 15-minute time-box.

6.6.12. The Scrum Master enforces the rule that only Development Team members participate in the Daily Scrum.

6.6.13. it improves communications, eliminate other meetings, identify impediments to development for removal, highlight and promote quick decision-making, and improve the Development Team’s level of knowledge

6.6.14. This is a key inspect and adapt meeting

6.7. Sprint Review

6.7.1. is held at the end of the Sprint to inspect the Increment and adapt the Product Backlog if needed.

6.7.2. the Scrum Team and stakeholders collaborate about what was done in the Sprint.

6.7.3. attendees collaborate on the next things that could be done to optimize value

6.7.4. This is an informal meeting

6.7.5. this is not a status meeting

6.7.6. the presentation of the Increment is intended to elicit feedback and foster collaboration

6.7.7. This is a four-hour time-boxed meeting for one-month Sprints.

6.7.8. The Scrum Master ensures that the event takes place and that attendants understand its purpose

6.7.9. The Scrum Master teaches all to keep it within the time-box.

6.7.10. The Sprint Review includes the following elements Attendees include the Scrum Team and key stakeholders invited by the Product Owner The Product Owner explains what Product Backlog items have been “Done” and what has not been “Done”; The Development Team discusses what went well during the Sprint, what problems it ran into, and how those problems were solved; The Development Team demonstrates the work that it has “Done” and answers questions about the Increment; He or she projects likely completion dates based on progress to date (if needed); The entire group collaborates on what to do next, so that the Sprint Review provides valuable input to subsequent Sprint Planning Review of how the marketplace or potential use of the product might have changed what is the most valuable thing to do next; Review of the timeline, budget, potential capabilities, and marketplace for the next anticipated release of the product.

6.7.11. The result of the Sprint Review is a revised Product Backlog that defines the probable Product Backlog items for the next Sprint.

6.7.12. The Product Backlog may also be adjusted overall to meet new opportunities

6.8. Sprint Retrospective

6.8.1. is an opportunity for the Scrum Team to inspect itself and create a plan for improvements to be enacted during the next Sprint

6.8.2. it occurs after the Sprint Review

6.8.3. and prior to the next Sprint Planning

6.8.4. This is a three-hour time-boxed meeting for one-month Sprints

6.8.5. The Scrum Master ensures that the event takes place and that attendants understand its purpose.

6.8.6. The Scrum Master teaches all to keep it within the time-box

6.8.7. The Scrum Master participates as a peer team member in the meeting from the accountability over the Scrum process It means that SM must be part of the improvment process. It means, be alert to get feedback and ajust what you are doing.

6.8.8. The purpose of the Sprint Retrospective is to Inspect how the last Sprint went with regards to: people relationships process tools Identify and order the major items that went well and potential improvements Create a plan for implementing improvements to the way the Scrum Team does its work

6.8.9. The Scrum Master encourages the Scrum Team to improve, within the Scrum process framework its development process and practices to make it more effective and enjoyable for the next Sprint

6.8.10. For each event the Scrum Team plans ways to increase product quality by adapting the definition of “Done” as appropriate

6.8.11. By the end of the Sprint Retrospective, the Scrum Team should have identified improvements that it will implement in the next Sprint

6.8.12. Implementing these improvements in the next Sprint is the adaptation to the inspection of the Scrum Team itself.

6.8.13. Although improvements may be implemented at any time, the Sprint Retrospective provides a formal opportunity to focus on inspection and adaptation

7. Scrum Artifacts

7.1. represent work or value to provide transparency and opportunities for inspection and adaptation

7.2. Artifacts defined by Scrum are specifically designed to maximize transparency of key information so that everybody has the same understanding of the artifact

7.3. Product Backlog

7.3.1. is an ordered list of everything that might be needed in the product and is the single source of requirements for any changes to be made to the product

7.3.2. The Product Owner is responsible for the Product Backlog, including its content, availability, and ordering

7.3.3. A Product Backlog is never complete

7.3.4. The Product Backlog evolves as the product and the environment in which it will be used evolves.

7.3.5. it is dynamic

7.3.6. it constantly changes to identify what the product needs to be appropriate, competitive, and useful.

7.3.7. As long as a product exists, its Product Backlog also exists.

7.3.8. The Product Backlog lists all features, functions, requirements, enhancements, and fixes that constitute the changes to be made to the product in future releases

7.3.9. Product Backlog items have the attributes of a description, order, estimate and value.

7.3.10. As a product is used and gains value, and the marketplace provides feedback, the Product Backlog becomes a larger and more exhaustive list.

7.3.11. Changes in business requirements, market conditions, or technology may cause changes in the Product Backlog

7.3.12. Multiple Scrum Teams often work together on the same product.

7.3.13. One Product Backlog is used to describe the upcoming work on the product.

7.3.14. Refinement is the act of adding detail, estimates, and order to items in the Product Backlog s an ongoing process in which the Product Owner and the Development Team collaborate on the details of Product Backlog items During Product Backlog refinement, items are reviewed and revised The Scrum Team decides how and when refinement is done Refinement usually consumes no more than 10% of the capacity of the Development Team Product Backlog items can be updated at any time by the Product Owner or at the Product Owner’s discretion Higher ordered Product Backlog items are usually clearer and more detailed than lower ordered ones. More precise estimates are made based on the greater clarity and increased detail; DoR: Ready Product Backlog items that can be “Done” by the Development Team within one Sprint are deemed “Ready” for selection in a Sprint Planning The Development Team is responsible for all estimates. The Product Owner may influence the Development Team by helping it understand and select trade-offs, but the people who will perform the work make the final estimate.

7.4. Monitoring Progress Toward a Goal

7.4.1. At any point in time, the total work remaining to reach a goal can be summed The Product Owner tracks this total work remaining at least every Sprint Review.

7.4.2. The Product Owner compares this amount with work remaining at previous Sprint Reviews to assess progress toward completing projected work by the desired time for the goal

7.4.3. Various projective practices upon trending have been used to forecast progress, like burn-downs, burn-ups, or cumulative flows. These have proven useful. However, these do not replace the importance of empiricism. In complex environments, what will happen is unknown. Only what has happened may be used for forward-looking decision-making

7.5. Sprint Backlog

7.5.1. it is the set of Product Backlog items selected for the Sprint

7.5.2. it is a plan for delivering the product Increment and realizing the Sprint Goal

7.5.3. it is a forecast by the Development Team about what functionality will be in the next Increment

7.5.4. it is the work needed to deliver that functionality into a “Done” Increment

7.5.5. it makes visible all of the work that the Development Team identifies as necessary to meet the Sprint Goal

7.5.6. it is a plan with enough detail that changes in progress can be understood in the Daily Scrum

7.5.7. The Development Team modifies the Sprint Backlog throughout the Sprint

7.5.8. the Sprint Backlog emerges during the Sprint This emergence occurs as the Development Team works through the plan and learns more about the work needed to achieve the Sprint Goal.

7.5.9. As new work is required, the Development Team adds it to the Sprint Backlog

7.5.10. As work is performed or completed, the estimated remaining work is updated.

7.5.11. When elements of the plan are deemed unnecessary, they are removed

7.5.12. Only the Development Team can change its Sprint Backlog during a Sprint.

7.5.13. The Sprint Backlog is a highly visible real-time picture of the work that the Development Team plans to accomplish during the Sprint, and it belongs solely to the Development Team.

7.5.14. Monitoring Sprint Progress At any point in time in a Sprint, the total work remaining in the Sprint Backlog can be summed. By tracking the remaining work throughout the Sprint, the Development Team can manage its progress.

7.6. Increment

7.6.1. is the sum of all the Product Backlog items completed during a Sprint

7.6.2. and the value of the increments of all previous Sprints.

7.6.3. At the end of a Sprint, the new Increment must be “Done,”

7.6.4. it must be in useable condition and meet the Scrum Team’s definition of “Done.”

7.6.5. It must be in useable condition regardless of whether the Product Owner decides to actually release it.

8. Artifact Transparency

8.1. Scrum relies on transparency.

8.2. Decisions to optimize value and control risk are made based on the perceived state of the artifacts.

8.3. The Scrum Master must work with the Product Owner, Development Team, and other involved parties to understand if the artifacts are completely transparent.

8.4. A Scrum Master can detect incomplete transparency by inspecting the artifacts, sensing patterns, listening closely to what is being said, and detecting differences between expected and real results

8.5. The Scrum Master’s job is to work with the Scrum Team and the organization to increase the transparency of the artifacts.

8.6. This work usually involves learning, convincing, and change

8.7. Transparency doesn’t occur overnight, but is a path.

9. Definition of “Done”

9.1. This is the definition of “Done” for the Scrum Team and is used to assess when work is complete on the product Increment.

9.2. Development Teams deliver an Increment of product functionality every Sprint.

9.3. This Increment is useable, so a Product Owner may choose to immediately release it.

9.4. If the definition of "done" for an increment is part of the conventions, standards or guidelines of the development organization, all Scrum Teams must follow it as a minimum.

9.5. If "done" for an increment is not a convention of the development organization, the Development Team of the Scrum Team must define a definition of “done” appropriate for the product.

9.6. If there are multiple Scrum Teams working on the system or product release, the development teams on all of the Scrum Teams must mutually define the definition of “Done.”

10. End Note

10.1. Scrum’s roles, artifacts, events, and rules are immutable and although implementing only parts of Scrum is possible, the result is not Scrum.

11. The Product Owner may do the above work, or have the Development Team do it. However, the Product Owner remains accountable.