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Copy of Kingdom Plantae by Mind Map: Copy of Kingdom Plantae
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Copy of Kingdom Plantae


Green Algae (Charophytes)

Reasons for colonizing land, Few predators, Plentiful CO2, Unfiltered sun

Evidence, Both have Cellulose cell walls, Cell plates are produced the same way, Plants and Charophytes have Peroxisomes that contain the same enzyme, no other algae has, Peroxizome: an organelle found in plants that breaks down fatty acids and produces hydrogen peroxide, Sperm structures are closely related

Sporopollenin prevents zygote from drying out, Sporopollenin: a layer of durable polymer

500 MYA

Symbiotic relation between fungi and first land plants

fungi gave plants (without roots) nutrients



Non- seeded, Life cycle dominated by Sporophytes, Plant Structure, Phloem, Conducts sugars and amino acids through the plant, Roots, absorbs water and nutrients from the soil. Also anchors the plant, Leaves, Sporophylls, Modified leaves that bear sporangia, Sori, clusters of sporangia in ferns, Homosporus, 1 type of sporangium, typically bisexual, Heterosporus, 2 types of sporangium, Megasporangium, produces Megaspores, Develop into female gametophytes, Microsporangium, Produces Microspores, Develop into male gametophytes, Strobili, groups of sporophyllus that form cone-like structures, Primary Photosynthetic Organ, Megaphylls, highly branched vascular system, Lycophytes, Oldest lineage of present day vascular plants, ONLY ones to have Microphylls, Leaves with a single strand of vascular tissue, Xylem, Conducts water and minerals through the plant, Lignin, Phenolic polymers that strengthen water conducting cells cell walls, Tracheids, tube shaped cells that carry water

Allowed plants to grow taller and gain access to sunlight

Independant Sporophytes

Seeded, Morphology, Ovule, Integument, a layer of Sporophyte tissue that envelops and protects the megasporangium, Megasporansium and megaspore, Pollen, Male Gametophyte in a protien wall, Angiosperms, Morphology, Fruits are mature ovaries, Help disperse seeds of the plant, Reproduces with the flower, Petals: Aid in attracting pollinators, Carpel: female reproductive structure, Stigma: Receives pollen, Ovary: contains ovules, develops into seed, Style: Path to the ovary, connected to stigma, Pollen tube grows through to allow fertilization, Double fertization occurs when two sperm meets female gamete, Sepals: Encloses flower before it opens, Stamens: male reproductive structure, Anther: Where pollen is produced, Filament: stalk of the anther, Seed plants that produce flowers and fruits, Groups, Monocotyledons, Have one cotyledon in the seed, parallel leaf veination and flowering parts in multiples of threes, Examples: -orchids -lilies -grasses, Dicotyledons, Eudicots "true dicots", Have two cotyledon in the seeds, net leaf veination and flowering parts usually in multiples of 4s or 5s, Examples: -oaks -roses -peas -beans, Gymnosperm, Seeds are not encased in ovaries, but exposed on cones, Groups, Most ecologically significant group, Conifers, Examples: -pines -spruces -redwoods -firs


Life cycle is dominated by Gametophytes, Sporophytes rely on the gametophyte for survival

Non vascular means they do not have xylem or phylem tissues, Accounts for their small size

Water is required for fertilization

commonly called bryophytes

Examples of Organisms, Liverworts, Hornworts, Mosses, Closely related to vascular plants

Plant Structure, Gametophytes, Protonema, Proto (first) nema (threads). A one cell thick mass that absorbs water and minerals, Gametophore, Generates gamete producing structures, Rhizoids, Structures that anchor a gametophyte to the ground. Long tubular either single cell or filaments of cells, Sporophytes, Capsule, Uses materials to produce spores, up to 50 million, Seta, Conducts materials to the Capsule, Foot, Anchors the plant to the Gametophyte, Stomata, Most commonly in vascular plants, allow CO2 and O2 exchange

General Information of all Plants

Alteration of Generations

1 generation of the plant is Diploid, the next generation will be haploid, and the next Diploid, Haploid plants grow from spores, Diploid plants grow from a zygote

Important Terminology

Gametophyte, A haploid plant that produces gametes by Mitosis

Sporophyte, A diploid plant that produces spores by Miosis

Bryophyte, Refers to all non vascular plants

Ovule, Megasporangium, megaspore, and integument

Embreophytes, Land plants

Cuticle, The epidermes, consisting of wax and polyester

Gametangia, Antheridia, Male gametangia, where many sperm are produced, Where gametes are produced, Archegonia, Female gametangia where a single egg is produced

Four traits of all land plants

Alternation of Generation

Apical meristems, Localized regions of cell division

Walled Spores produced in sporangia

Multicellular gametangia



helps the colonization of new land

Seeded plants are the dominant producers


Fuel, Fossil Fuels, Decay of Carboniferous forests became coal, Alternative Fuel, mosses decay to peat which can be burned

Food, Most of our food comes from angiosperms, 6 crops yield 80% of calories we consume

Wood, xylem tissue of seeded vascular plants

Medicine, Secondary compounds of seeded plants