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world war 1 by Mind Map: world war 1

1. why USA entered war?

1.1. German U boat Compaign

1.2. German encouragement to Mexico to attack USA

2. Impact of of USA entry

2.1. contribution to allied victory

2.2. supplied Britain and France food, merchant ships and credit

2.3. psychological boost which American potential in resources of men and materials gave to allies and corresponding blow it gave to German morale

3. causes

3.1. the alliance systems

3.2. colonial rivalry in africa and far east

3.3. the naval race between Britain and germany

3.4. Economic rivalry

3.5. Russia made war more likely by supporting Serbia

3.6. German backing for austria was crucially important

3.7. Mobilisation plans of great powers

3.8. a tragedy of miscalculations

4. why war lasted so long?

4.1. two sides were fairly evenly balanced

4.2. other countries not part of original alliance system also joined the wa

4.2.1. in hope of gaining new territories

4.2.2. turkey bulgaria joined the central powers

4.2.3. USA, Japan joined the allied powers

4.3. to make it more complex troops form british empire also played part in the fighting

4.4. individual strategic causes of nations

4.4.1. Germany aimed to take territory poland in east and beligum in west to make it buffer zones against russia and france

4.4.2. french were obsessed with taking back Alsace-Lorraine

4.4.3. Austria Hungry was desperate to protect their empire against ambitions odd Serbia

4.4.4. Britain didn't want belgium to be controlled by Germany

4.5. propaganda helped to motivate and encourage general public as well as military through media, films etc.

4.6. defeat of Russia encouraged the german generals to continue struggle

5. why did central power lose the war?

5.1. Schlieffen Plan failed= Germany has to face war on two fronts

5.2. Allies sea power was decisive = enforced deadly blocked = desperate food shortage among civilian population and  crippled exports

5.3. german submarine campaign failed in the face of convoys protected by British, American and Japanese destroyers

5.3.1. also brought USA into war

5.4. Entry of USA

5.5. allied political leaders more competent then of Central powers

5.6. continuous strain of heavy losses on germans

5.6.1. also epidemic of deadly spanish flue

5.7. Germany was badly let down by her allies and was constantly having to help out the Austrians and Bulgarians

6. effects of war

6.1. women had to take places of men in factories and other positions as most men were away in armed forces

6.2. appalling death toll among armed forces

6.2.1. 2 million germans

6.2.2. 1.7  million russians

6.2.3. 1.5 million French

6.3. Germany= hardship and defeat caused revolution=Wiemar republic came = scio-eco-pol problem== Hitler became chancellor

6.4. Habsburg empire collapsed completely

6.5. Pressure of war caused two revolutions in Russia

6.5.1. Feb revolution overthrew Tsar

6.5.2. October revolution brought Lenin and Bolsheviks to power

6.6. Italy= war caused drain of resources ==heavily debt==Mussolini took advantage of govt situation and took over control==first fascist dictatorship

6.7. Japan, China and USA took advantage of war in Europe and expanded their their trade==japan and china began their own programme of industrialization

6.8. US President Woodrow Wilson= League of Nations==collective security

7. problems of making a peace settlement

7.1. war aims

7.1.1. Woodrow Wilson declared war aims in his 14 points

7.1.2. when war started none of the participants had definite idea about what they wanted to achieve except Austria -Hungry

7.2. differing allied views about how to treat the defeated powers

7.2.1. france wanted harsh peace to destroy germany

7.2.2. Britain was in favor of less severe settlement

7.2.3. USA was in favour of lenient peace= wanted just peace

8. Treaty of Versailles

8.1. terms

8.1.1. Germany had to loose territory in Europe

8.1.1.1. Alsace lorraine to france

8.1.1.2. North schleswig to Denmark

8.1.1.3. West prussia and posen to Poland

8.1.1.4. Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia given to germany by Russia were taken back from germany. Self determination implemented and these three territories were made independent

8.1.2. Germany's african territories were taken away and became mandate under league of nations

8.1.3. German armaments were strictly limited to 1 lac troops and no conscription, no tanks, no armoured cars etc

8.1.4. war guilt clause

8.1.5. germany was to pay reparations for damage done to allies= 6600 million pounds

8.1.6. A league of nations was formed

8.2. Problems

8.2.1. dictated peace

8.2.2. many provisions not based on 14 points

8.2.3. loss of territory in europe

8.2.3.1. Principle of ""all nationalities should have right to choose which country they want to belong"" was violated for Germans as a million germans were under Polish rule and 3 million under Czechoslovakia

8.2.3.1.1. unification was forbidden because that would have made germany larger and more powerful even than in 1914

8.2.4. loss of germany's african colonies

8.2.5. disarmament clauses were deeply resented

8.2.6. war guilt clause

8.2.7. reparations

8.2.7.1. too much impossible to pay for germans

8.2.7.1.1. actually done by allies to pay back war debts to USA

9. peace treaties with austria and hungry

9.1. treaty of st germain to deal with Austria

9.1.1. Austria lost many territories

9.2. treaty of Trianon dealing with hungry

9.3. both treaties contained league of nations convent

9.4. this treaty followed spirit of self determination

9.4.1. people were placed under the government of their own nationality

9.4.1.1. a

9.4.2. although not as Wilson would have liked ; in Hungry and Poland

9.5. Problems

9.5.1. Austria

9.5.1.1. Its population was reduced from 22 mn to 6.5 mn

9.5.1.2. its industrial wealth lost to czechokoslovakia and poland

9.5.1.3. austria went in economic crisis had to take load from League of nations

9.5.2. Hungry

9.5.2.1. population reduced from 21 mn to 7.5 mn

9.5.2.2. richest corn land lost to romania

9.5.2.3. new industrial introduced tariffs which=hampered flow of trade= hampered economic recovery of austria

10. treaty of Sevres dealing with Turkey

10.1. Terms

10.1.1. lost many territory regions to Italy

10.1.2. strait were to be permanently open

10.2. Problems

10.2.1. loss of so much territory to greece specially Smyrna outraged Turkish national feeling

10.2.1.1. Turks rejected treaty and chased Greece out of Smyrna

10.2.2. Treaty was revised through New treaty of Lausanne

10.2.2.1. Turkey was first state to challenge paris settlement successfully

10.2.2.2. turkey gained eastern thrace and Constantinople

11. Treaty of Neuilly , dealing with Bulgaria

11.1. Terms

11.1.1. lost territory to greece, romania and yugoslavia

12. verdict of peace settlement

12.1. treaty was not a conspicuous success

12.2. divided europe into states which wanted to revise the settlement

12.3. USA failed to ratify settlement and never joined league of nations

12.4. Italy felt cheated as she did not received territory promised to her in 1915

12.5. Russia was ignored as powers did't want to negotiate with its Bolsheviks government

12.6. Left the germans with a sense of resentment and grievance but did not leave them too weak to retaliate an seek revenge!!

13. events leading to outbreak of war

13.1. Moroccan crisis 1905-06

13.2. British Government with Russia

13.2.1. Antagonized Germany with its belief of encirclement

13.3. Bosnia crisis 1908

13.3.1. serbia remained bitterly hostile to austria

13.3.2. russian were determined to avoid any further humiliation and embarked upon massive military buildup and modernisation of army

13.4. the agadir crisis 1911

13.5. the first Balkan war 1912

13.6. second balkan war 1913

13.7. Assassination of the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand