River Valley Civilizations

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River Valley Civilizations by Mind Map: River Valley Civilizations

1. Religion

1.1. Zhou/Shang

1.1.1. The Shang Dynasty believed in the afterlife.

1.1.2. The Shang would often make ritual meals for their deceased ancestors in remembrance, also believing the steam from the food would nourish their ancestors spirits.

1.1.3. The Zhou Dynasty believed in two religions, Confucianism, and Daoism.

1.1.4. Confucianism, the belief that everyone should be treated humanely. Daoism, the belief that people shouldn't follow the laws of society, but the laws of nature.

1.2. Sumerians

1.2.1. Practiced Polytheism, which is the worship of many gods.

1.2.2. Believed that gods controlled all natural forces, such as the air and weather.

1.2.3. Believed a god protected each city-state.

1.2.4. Believed that gods were like humans in that they ate, drank, fell in love, married, and fought.

2. Science and Technology

2.1. Zhou/Shang

2.1.1. The Shang Dynasty developed a system of writing using oracle bones, writing on the bones themselves.

2.1.2. The Shang Dynasty created a calendar based on the cycles of the moon along with potentially one of the first systems of money.

2.1.3. The Zhou Dynasty developed metalwork from solely bronze to both bronze and iron.

2.1.4. The Zhou Dynasty built more roads, and canals allowing better transportation and communication throughout China.

2.2. Sumerians

2.2.1. Sumerians used geometry in creating their building structures and irrigation systems.

2.2.2. Invented the wheel, using it to make pottery and different vehicles.

2.2.3. Used bronze to improve upon and make stronger weapons and tools such as the plow.

2.2.4. Further developing their medical knowledge learning to perform basic surgeries

3. Economy and Trade

3.1. Zhou/Shang

3.1.1. In the Shang Dynasty bronze held an importance to the economy as their metalwork relied on it.

3.1.2. Agriculture was a  major influence on the economy during the Shang Dynasty as the majority of people spent their time tending to crops as farmers.

3.1.3. The Zhou Dynasty learned how to use iron in their metalworking which was cheaper, and quick to cast.

3.1.4. During the Zhou Dynasty as the population grew better transportation and communication allowed better trade throughout China.

3.2. Sumerians

3.2.1. Obtained many of the materials for their buildings & art through trade, but lacked raw materials such as wood and metals.

3.2.2. To get resources they would trade with other people across Southwest Asia.

3.2.3. Their would mainly exchange textiles for metals, timber, and stone.

3.2.4. Trade vastly enriched Sumer causing distinct social rankings to develop.

4. Governement and Leaders

4.1. Zhou/Shang

4.1.1. The Shang Dynasty was ruled by a strong monarchy, where the kings were surrounded by a court who performed rituals to keep the kingdom safe and strong.

4.1.2. The Shang Dynasty had governors along with a king in hopes of keeping order.

4.1.3. The Zhou Dynasty implemented the Mandate of Heaven which stated that the gods would not allow there to be a corrupt ruler.

4.1.4. The Zhou Dynasty used the Mandate of Heaven to explain the rise and downfall of dynasties in China. So dynasties that lost power were corrupt.

4.2. Sumerians

4.2.1. Religion was the main factor in determining the structure of the government in Sumer.

4.2.2. Priests originally governed the city-states until war chiefs transformed into Kings who then ruled over the community.

4.2.3. Every city-state of Sumer was a separate political unit, each with an individual government.

4.2.4. The Kings that ruled in the city-states, served as the gods' chief representatives, performing ceremonies to please the gods.

5. Social Structure and Family Life

5.1. Zhou/Shang

5.1.1. During the Shang Dynasty people who were considered elite had available time to pursue leisure activities.

5.1.2. The majority of people during the Shang Dynasty worked in the fields and tended to crops.

5.1.3. In the Zhou Dynasty children were expected to respect both their parents and elders, and in return parents were to show their children lovingness, and kindness.

5.1.4. The structure of the Zhou Dynasty was based upon two different philosophies, Daoism and Confucianism.

5.2. Sumerians

5.2.1. Priests and Kings held the highest status in Sumer.

5.2.2. Large landowners and rich merchants held the second highest status.

5.2.3. The majority of sumerians held the middle class status as artisans, farmers, and laborers.

5.2.4. Women and men had distinct roles, as women stayed home and took care of the children and men held political power and made laws.

6. Arts and Education

6.1. Zhou/Shang

6.1.1. The Shang Dynasty artists created decorative vessels and objects, to potentially use in religious rituals.

6.1.2. Religion during the Shang Dynasty led to advances in working with bronze, especially to create artwork.

6.1.3. The Zhou Dynasty's education system relied on two philosophies, Doaism and Confucianism.

6.1.4. During the Zhou Dynasty under Confucianism it was the duty of educated people to devote themselves to public service.

6.2. Sumerians

6.2.1. Architecture built and developed by the Sumerians included arches, ramps, columns, and ziggurats.

6.2.2. Sumerian sculptures were typically statues with large open eyes, and small objects carved out of ivory.

6.2.3. They developed cylinder seals to engrave wet clay with detailed design, also used to show ownership of  documents.

6.2.4. Applied the use of cuneiform, the Sumerian wiring system, by using tools called styluses to make symbols on clay tablets in order to not only keep records, but to write laws, grammar,  stories, poems, and songs.

7. Geography and Agriculture

7.1. Zhou/Shang

7.1.1. Two rivers supplied the early Chinese civilizations with their water, the Yellow River and the Yangzi River.

7.1.2. The lands between the rivers were very fertile due to the floods that deposited rich soil into  the river flood plains.

7.1.3. Due to the rivers, rich soil, and irrigation it was easy for China's agriculture to flourish.

7.1.4. Farmers during the Zhou Dynasty were able to  create new techniques in farming allowing them to obtain food surpluses from the already fertile land.

7.2. Sumerians

7.2.1. Found their rich soil in the fertile crescent between the Tigris river and the Euphrates river.

7.2.2. In order to alleviate the problems with flooding the Sumerians would organize groups of people to solve the issues that arose.

7.2.3. Began farming very early due to the swampy, flat region of Mesopotamia that which was suited for agriculture.

7.2.4. Floods between the two rivers left fertile mud called silt, which enriched the soil.