health science (Sec 1 Singapore)

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health science (Sec 1 Singapore) by Mind Map: health science (Sec 1 Singapore)

1. cells

1.1. can be deadly

1.1.1. cancer calls

1.2. components of a cell

1.2.1. cell membrane

1.2.1.1. Characteristics

1.2.1.1.1. Thin layer around cell

1.2.1.1.2. partially permeable membrane

1.2.1.2. Function

1.2.1.2.1. to control substances entering and exiting the cell

1.2.2. nucleus

1.2.2.1. Characteristics

1.2.2.1.1. contains chromosomes which are hereditary materials

1.2.2.1.2. surrounded by nuclear envelope

1.2.2.2. Functions

1.2.2.2.1. controls all cell activity

1.2.3. cell wall

1.2.3.1. Characteristics

1.2.3.1.1. Thick layer around plant cell

1.2.3.1.2. made up of cellulose

1.2.3.1.3. fully permeable

1.2.3.2. Functions

1.2.3.2.1. provides protection against mechanical damage and gives the plant a fixed shape

1.2.3.2.2. support a plant cell and gives it a regular shape

1.2.4. cytoplasm

1.2.4.1. Characteristics

1.2.4.1.1. contains water and many other substances

1.2.4.1.2. important organelles in it

1.2.4.1.3. jelly like substance that fills the cell

1.2.4.2. Function

1.2.4.2.1. place where most life proccesses

1.2.5. vacuole

1.2.5.1. Characteristics

1.2.5.1.1. Fluid filled space enclosed by membrane

1.2.5.1.2. difference between animal and plant cell

1.2.5.2. Functions

1.2.5.2.1. Stores water and dissolved substances(e.g. food waste products

1.2.6. Mitonchodrion (plural: mitochondria)

1.2.6.1. Characteristics

1.2.6.1.1. Small spherical or rod-shaped organelles

1.2.6.2. Functions

1.2.6.2.1. where respiration take place for release of energy

1.2.7. Chloroplast

1.2.7.1. Characteristics

1.2.7.1.1. Small disc-shaped  organelles found in plant cells

1.2.7.2. Functions

1.2.7.2.1. Site where photosynthesis takes place

1.3. Comparison of animal and plant cell

1.3.1. Animal cell

1.3.1.1. absence of cell wall

1.3.1.2. absence of chloroplast

1.3.1.3. Presence of many small temporary vacuoles

1.3.1.4. Absence of starch granule

1.3.1.5. irregular shape

1.3.2. Plant cell

1.3.2.1. Presence of cellulose cell wall

1.3.2.2. Presence of chloroplast

1.3.2.3. Presence of a large central vacuole filled with cell sap

1.3.2.4. Presence of starch granules

1.3.2.5. regular shape

1.4. Specialisation

1.4.1. undergo differentiation when structures are modified to suit specific function performed

1.4.1.1. stem cells

1.4.1.1.1. can be therapatic

1.4.1.1.2. Functions

1.4.1.1.3. Structural adaptation

1.4.1.2. Xylem vessels

1.4.1.2.1. Functions

1.4.1.2.2. Structural adaptation

1.4.1.3. Red Blood Cell

1.4.1.3.1. Functions

1.4.1.3.2. Structural adaptation

1.4.1.4. Adaptation must fit function

1.5. Levels of organism

1.5.1. cell

1.5.2. tissue

1.5.2.1. Cells of same type grouped together to carry out a special function

1.5.2.2. Examples

1.5.2.2.1. Epidermal tissue or ephithelium

1.5.2.2.2. Blood tissue

1.5.2.2.3. Connective tissue

1.5.2.2.4. Nervous tissue

1.5.3. organ

1.5.3.1. Different tissues untied to form a special function

1.5.4. organ system

1.5.4.1. several organs working together for a special purpose

1.5.4.2. examples

1.5.4.2.1. Digestive system

1.5.4.2.2. Respiratory system

1.5.4.2.3. Circulatory system

1.5.4.2.4. Excretory System

1.5.4.2.5. Nervous system

1.5.4.2.6. Musculo-skeletal system

1.5.5. organism

1.5.5.1. various organ systems working together constitute an organ

1.6. Division of labour

1.6.1. work is divided

1.6.1.1. cells

1.6.1.1.1. among various components and organelles of cell

1.6.1.2. Multicellular

1.6.1.2.1. among each type of cell, tissue and organ

1.6.2. breakdown of work into small and more specific tasks allows the organism to carry out its function more efficiently

1.7. Characteristics of living organisms

1.7.1. ability to move body parts

1.7.2. Intake of food into the body and conversion into new protoplasm

1.7.3. breakdown of food substances to release energy in living cells

1.7.4. Production of new individuals for survival of the species

1.7.5. Permanent increase of size with changes of form and structure

1.7.6. Removal of waste products in living cells

1.7.7. Ability to respond to changes in the environment

1.7.8. ability of species to change to improve its chances of survival

1.8. a basic unit of life

1.9. living matter called protoplasm

1.9.1. 3 parts

1.9.1.1. nucleus

1.9.1.2. cytoplasm

1.9.1.3. plasma membrane

2. Transport in humans

2.1. Need for transport system

2.1.1. Unicellular system

2.1.1.1. example

2.1.1.1.1. amoeba

2.1.1.2. no part of cell is too far from external environment

2.1.1.3. Exchange of a substance occurs by diffusion

2.1.1.4. Oxygen and nutrients reach all part of cells

2.1.1.5. Waste products diffuse out of cell

2.1.1.6. Transport system not needed

2.1.2. Multicellular

2.1.2.1. example

2.1.2.1.1. human

2.1.2.2. Cells far from external environment

2.1.2.3. Diffusion is too slow to bring oxygen and nutrients to cell or remove waste products from cell

2.1.2.4. Transport system needed

2.1.3. continue from here