Vernacular Architecture of Asia

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Vernacular Architecture of Asia by Mind Map: Vernacular Architecture of Asia

1. What is Vernacular Architecture?

1.1. the built vernacular heritage is a fundamental expression of the culture of a community, of its relationship with its territory and, at the same time, the expression of the world's cultural diversity (ICOMOS)

1.2. indigenous, tribal, folk, peasant and traditional architecture (Paul Oliver)

1.3. architecture withouth architects (Bernard Rudofsky)

1.4. continuing process including the necessary changes and continuous adaptation as a response to social and environmental constraints

1.5. a building that's built in a particular place, at a particular time

1.5.1. local/regional dialect

1.5.2. relationship between building and its use

1.5.3. commonly shared knowledge

1.5.3.1. transmission of knowledge from one generation to another

1.5.3.2. tradition

1.5.3.2.1. tradition cannot be inherited, and if you want it you must obtain it by great labour (T. S. Eliot)

1.5.3.3. common speech of a building

1.5.4. characteristic product of a society

1.5.4.1. identity of a community

1.5.4.2. culture

1.5.4.3. aspiration and desires of people

1.5.5. cultural heritage

1.6. threats: economic, cultural and architectural homogenisation; human and natural causes

1.6.1. rapid urbanization

1.6.2. uncontrolled population growth

1.6.3. natural disasters

1.6.4. globalisation

1.6.5. homogenisation of culture

1.6.6. human neglect, ignorance, greed, wars

1.7. vernacular as the window to understand people and their culture > vernacular environments represent people's lives

1.8. ability and flexibility to adapt to changes to bring in modern conveniences and comfort in order to meet the needs of the people, as long as the changes do not diminish the significance of the cultural heritage

1.9. distinctive and identifiable form of cultural tradition

1.10. living heritage

2. People and Culture

2.1. culture

2.1.1. habitats, way of living, values, tradition, beliefs

2.1.2. culture embodies the complexity of distinctive spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional features that characterize a society or social group (UNESCO World Conference)

2.2. culture is coming out of the place, the topography, the climate, the materials etc.

2.3. cultural factors are the primarly determinant of the house form (Amos Rapoport)

3. Climate

3.1. no environmental factor plays a greater part in the development of human life than climate (Paul Oliver)

3.2. adaptation to climatic and physical conditions of the environment

3.2.1. respecting and cope with forces of nature instead of fighting against it

3.2.2. climate as potential

3.2.2.1. yurts

3.2.2.2. cave dwellings

3.2.2.2.1. heated beds (kang) to keep the body warm

3.2.2.3. elevated structures

3.2.2.4. whitewashed lime plaster walls and stone column bases

3.2.2.5. courtyard houses

3.2.2.5.1. modifier of micro climate

3.2.2.5.2. for a range of climates; different climatic expression in different places

3.3. 9 climatic zones to help understand how vernacular architecture responds to climatic variances (Jeffrey Cook)

3.3.1. Asia (from north to south)

3.3.1.1. arctic and subarctic

3.3.1.2. continental

3.3.1.3. desert

3.3.1.4. montane

3.3.1.5. maritime

3.3.1.6. sub-tropical

3.3.1.7. monsoon

3.3.1.8. tropical

3.4. traditional Japanese houses (minka) have thin walls (paper); this shows that clilmate is n ot the determinant factor but rather their traditional religious belief

3.4.1. designed for summer

3.5. hot and dry / hot and humid climate

3.5.1. hot and dry

3.5.1.1. solid walls to store up the heat during the day

3.5.1.2. small windows

3.5.2. hot and humid

3.5.2.1. thin wall for air flow

3.5.2.2. large windows

3.6. each climate has its own optimal relationship

3.7. concept of feng-shui

3.7.1. relationship between habitat and habitant

3.7.2. natural elements of wind and water as integral part of the micro-climate upon the selection of a site for settlement

3.7.3. Japan: hoigaku (hoi: direction, gaku: angle/corner); used to determine the location and orientation of the buildings

3.7.4. study of relationship between architecture and orientation, which encompasses the natural factors of topography and climate

3.7.5. Korea: peng-su

3.7.6. living with the conditions, with the Cosmos

3.8. responding to climate is responding to the cultural or spiritual ideas

4. Materials and Construction

4.1. types of building materials

4.1.1. natural / manufactued

4.1.1.1. replacement of manufactured materials over natural materials does not necessarily diminish the cultural value of the traditional built form

4.1.1.1.1. both natural and manufactured can contribute to the vernacular element of a building

4.1.1.1.2. manufactured materials can help to elevate the status of the families who can afford them

4.2. construction methods, systems and workmanship

4.2.1. represent wisdom of individual or group

4.2.2. knowledge is shared and passed down from one generation to another

4.2.3. integral part of the vernacular

4.2.4. connection to other crafts

4.3. rituals and ceremonies

4.3.1. vernacular architecture as a spiritual body that is housed in a physical built form

4.3.2. rites and rituals are an essential part of vernacular architecture's cultural value

4.4. dimensioning

4.4.1. dimensions of buildings must be congruent with the cosmos to ensure that nothing goes against nature

4.4.2. most fundamental way of dimensioning comes from the human body

4.4.3. vernacular architecture has human scale

4.5. cultural and technical aspect of vernacular building tradition

5. Vernacular Landscape

5.1. Concept of Landscape

5.1.1. cultural landscape

5.1.1.1. designed and created

5.1.1.2. can grow and fall into decay

5.1.1.3. made by humans

5.1.1.4. exist everywhere human activities have affected the land

5.1.1.5. not always created by professional designers or planners; the vast majority of cultural landscapes are built by common people

5.1.2. natural

5.1.2.1. not affected by human activities

5.2. Concept of Vernacular Landscape

5.2.1. Types of Vernacular Landscapes

5.2.1.1. private vs. public

5.2.1.1.1. private property

5.2.1.1.2. public spaces

5.2.1.2. rural vs. urban

5.2.1.2.1. rural vernacular

5.2.2. built environment for the commoners

5.2.2.1. family gardens

5.2.2.2. street markets

5.2.2.3. terrace rice fields

5.2.3. ordinary landscapes which evolve unintentionally and represent multiple layers of time and cultural activity (Professor Melnick)

5.2.4. created by people based on traditions and customs

5.2.5. different layers of meaning

5.3. Concept of 'Sense of Place'

5.3.1. bonding between human beings and ordinary places

5.3.2. genius loci

5.3.3. guardian spirit of a place

5.3.4. symbols and intangible features

5.3.5. symbols of permanent values

5.3.5.1. landmarks

5.3.6. element of timelessness and identity within the spirit of place;

5.3.7. character and atmosphere of a place

5.3.8. this concept makes the ordinary places not so ordinary

5.3.9. meaning of a place

6. Rural Vernacular

6.1. buildings that are largely made up of natural and locally available materials

6.2. un-self-conscious process of building

6.2.1. following traditional ways adopted by previous generations whitout asking any questions

6.2.2. 'timeless'/eternal quality

6.2.2.1. sustained evolvement and use of the building to maintain the essential quality

6.3. rural vernacular environment

6.3.1. consists of isolated or clusters of houses forming communities or villages

6.3.2. rural social, economic and cultural systems as foundations

6.3.3. connected with the spiritual and cosmic realms

6.3.4. not necessarily unself-conscious

6.4. setting: place where something is embedded

6.4.1. helps to define the place, the village, the settlement or the town

6.4.2. determined by social and socio-economic factors

6.5. settlement: place where people establish a community

6.6. rural vernacular architecture is the pyhsical representation of the social, economic and cultural system in a village

6.7. role of cosmic order

6.8. importance of family, clan

6.9. skills and knowledge are widely shared in rural settings

7. Urban Vernacular

7.1. cities as places for economic opporutinty

7.2. cities as concentrations of creative production and culture

7.2.1. interchange

7.2.1.1. cultural milieu

7.3. cities bring people together

7.4. people are migrants from rural areas or immigrants from other countries of different ethic, religious and cultural origin

7.4.1. clusters within the city

7.4.1.1. neighbourhoods

7.4.2. cities as melting pots

7.4.2.1. culturally rich and diverse

7.4.2.1.1. variety of vernacular buildings

7.4.3. city as a microcosm

7.5. typologies

7.5.1. Japanese townhouse

7.5.2. South Asian bungalow

7.5.3. Asian shop house

7.5.3.1. combines trade and dwelling

7.5.3.1.1. social and economic unit

7.5.4. differences in lifestyle, settlement pattern and climate, and the idiosyncrasies of the various ethnic groups, have produced an astounding variety of housetypes (Gerard Toffin)

7.6. street connection to houses is important

7.6.1. essential patterns of life

7.6.2. neighbourhood

7.7. vernacular buildings are not necessarily financed by the people who will use them

7.8. in cities, the development and speculation is responsible for a large portion of the vernacular environment

8. Informal Settlements

8.1. part of natural process of migrating to cities

8.2. not planned in advance

8.3. in the outskirts of cities or in undesirable places within cities

8.4. result of ubranization

8.5. different forms of settlement have different modes of origin and different kind of layouts

8.6. lack of land tenure and land ownership

8.7. marginal buildings as vernacular architecture

8.7.1. built with commonly understood pattern and materials

8.7.2. built in a piecemeal fashion

8.7.2.1. settlements gradually evolve

8.7.3. built within a complex culture of material supply and expertise

8.7.3.1. organized economy

8.8. bottom-up

8.9. houses in informal settlement act as places for work

8.9.1. save money on rent and transportation

8.10. shadow economy

8.10.1. acts seperately from the mainstream economy

8.10.2. provides employment

8.11. approach: accept the reality of these settlements; gradual improvement rather than demolition and reconstruction

8.11.1. community participation

8.11.2. collective actions taken by grassroot-groups to improve the socio-economic life

8.11.3. public participation

8.12. people and communities take responsibilities for their own environments

8.13. part of urban vernacular

9. Conecept and Meaning of Vernacular

9.1. three levels of meanings of vernacular

9.1.1. low-level meaning

9.1.1.1. everyday and instrumental meanings

9.1.1.2. patterns

9.1.2. middle-level meaning

9.1.2.1. identity, status, wealth and power

9.1.3. high-level meaning

9.1.3.1. sacred, cosmologies, world view, and philosophies of the community, the clan, or the family

9.1.3.2. relationship with the universe

9.1.3.3. beliefs

9.1.3.4. harmony with nature

9.1.3.4.1. feng shui

10. Architectural Conservation of the Build Vernacular Heritage

10.1. world's cultural diversity

10.2. how do we make those ordinary built forms sustainable in a modern globalised world?

10.2.1. concept of sustainability

10.2.1.1. meet the needs of the present generation without jeopardize the ability of the future generation to meet their needs

10.3. vernacular architecture represents humanity's different ways to adapt to the environment to suit our needs in tangible and intangible ways

10.4. preservation: maintenance, keep from harm, keep frozen in time

10.5. conservation: creativ, forward-looking acitivity

10.5.1. maintaining the cultural value of vernacular buildings

10.5.2. conserve cultural significance and values

10.5.2.1. social value

10.5.2.1.1. evoke people's memory

10.5.2.1.2. shared societal value

10.5.2.1.3. common value

10.5.2.2. contextual value

10.5.2.3. multiplicity of values

10.5.2.4. story of a place

10.5.2.4.1. value of a place

10.5.3. conservation as a process that concerns the care and continuing development of a place

10.5.4. adding modern facilities may not necessarily reduce the value of the vernacular heritage

10.6. truthful and authentic

10.7. alteration, adaptation or improvements are indispensable to the conservation of vernacular architecture

10.7.1. change is undesireable where it reduces cultural significance

10.7.2. modification are reversible

10.8. change is inevitable

11. Future of Asia's Vernacular Architecture

11.1. innovation lasts and is passed down; it then acquires value

11.2. tradition as a product and tradition as a process

11.2.1. process

11.2.1.1. traditional built forms that are built and handed down from one generation to another

11.2.2. product

11.2.2.1. vernacular buildings

11.3. multiple tradition in a modern society

11.4. "The past should be altered by the present as much as the present is directed by the past" T. S. Eliot

11.5. continuity of tradition and cultural heritage

11.5.1. continuation of time

11.6. old/used presented in a new way