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Camera by Mind Map: Camera

1. Aperture

1.1. What is Aperture?

1.1.1. The the opening of the lens

1.1.2. How much light is let into the camera

1.1.3. When you hit record/shutter button on the camera a iris opens up allowing the allocated light to be let into the body of the camera

1.1.4. Is similar to how human eyes work as the pupil getting bigger or smaller depedning on how bright something is

1.2. How is it Measured?

1.2.1. - F/stop is a mearsurment of aperture - The higher the f/stop the less light there is and the lower the f/stop the more light there is 3

1.3. What is the Mechanism Called?

1.3.1. The mechanism that controls the Aperture is called the Iris. It is made up of physical rings that create a open whole to let the light through to the cameras sensor. The aperture is simple the size of the whole within the Iris, the larger the whole, the lower the F/Stop, which lets in more light to the sensor. 4

1.4. images

1.4.1. 1 2

2. Depth of field

2.1. explanation

2.1.1. DOP is the distance between the nearest and the furthest objects within a focused image.

2.2. affected by changing

2.2.1. aperture The wider the apature you use, the less depth of field that you capture.

2.2.2. focus distance The closer you are to the subject you're focusing on, the less depth of field you will capture on camera .

2.2.3. focale lenght The wider the lens (the shorter the focal length) the more depth of field you capture

2.3. examples

2.3.1. 1 2 3

2.4. creative shots

2.4.1. 1 2 3

3. Focal Length

3.1. Focal Length is another factor of Depth of Field. Focal Length is the distance between the focal point within the lens to the Image Sensor.

3.2. When the Focal Length is increased, the depth of field becomes smaller, meaning that there is less of the image that is in focus.

3.3. However, if the focal length is widened, the depth of field is increased, meaning that more of the image is in focus.

4. our shots

4.1. Shutter Speed:1/20 F/Stop:3.5 Focal Length:18m ISO:100 WB:Preset 0, 0

4.1.1. Shutter Speed:1/10 F/Stop:4.5 Focal Length:35mm ISO: 100 WB:Preset 0, 0 Shutter Speed:1/8 F/Stop:5.6 Focal Length: 55mm ISO:100 WB:Preset 0, 0

4.2. Shutter Speed:1/8 F/Stop:5.6 Focal Length:55mm ISO:100 WB:Preset 0, 0

4.2.1. Shutter Speed:1/4 F/Stop:10 Focal Length:55mm ISO:200 WB:Preset 0, 0 Shutter Speed:1" F/Stop:29 Focal Length:55mm ISO:400 WB:Preset 0, 0

5. Sensor

5.1. What is a Camera Sensor?

5.1.1. - The camera senor is a SSD which captures light and processes into the final image - The sensor is one of most vital parts of a camera because it processes the image that you want to capture and without it you would not be able get a final image 1

5.1.2. - The sensor itself is actually colourblind as the sensor is an analogue device and has to convert the signal (image) which is then projected into a digital form. By forming all of the colour filters within the camera and then putting them together to form the final image

5.2. - The camera sensor is basically the compositor of the camera, it builds the final image by taking other parts such as the ISO setting, White balance, Aperture and so forth to build the image. When you take a picture the camera sensor breaks down the image and numbers each pixel so it can be understood by the computer

5.3. Whats the difference between a CCD and CMOS Sensor?

5.3.1. A CCD sensor has the ability to transfer charge (image) across the processor of the camera meaning it leads to higher quality photos due to the fact the image isn’t being dragged (distorted) so you can get a more higher quality, lower noise image but the actual uses a lot of power (can be 100 times more than a CMOS sensor) below is a CCD sensor 1

5.3.2. A CMOS sensor is more or less the opposite of a CCD sensor, with a CMOS sensor it has less photo sensors than the CCD meaning you get an image with more noise and less quality but a CMOS is nearly more than half the price of a CCD sensor so manufactures are more able to sell a digital camera for a more reasonable device, an image below of what a CMOS sensor looks like 2

5.4. What is a Bayer filter?

5.4.1. The Bayer Filter is a colour filter which arranges RGB colours on a square grid of photo sensors and mainly uses a single-chip which is found in most modern cameras. The filter itself arranges the colours of the image by scanning the photo and creating the final image 1

5.5. Explain what crop factor is.

5.5.1. Crop factor is when you have a small sensor but use a bigger lens than the size of the sensor, meaning when you take a picture are effectively cropping the image within the camera than in post 2

5.5.2. On the left you have a full frame sensor but missing the sides and on the right the sensor is taking the image closer to the lens meaning it has been cropped out, this isn’t zooming in

5.5.3. What effect does it have on the focal length of a lens? Crop factor doesn’t affect the focal length simply because the focal length of a lens is the only focal length of that lens as most lenses nowadays are designed to fit APS-C sensors in DLSRs which are marked with a true, actual focal length

5.6. How do you calculate the equivalent focal length of a lens?

5.6.1. To calculate you have to multiply the actual focal length of the lens by the crop factor of the sensor

5.6.2. What is the equivalent focal length of a 50mm lens on a Nikon D3000 To get a 50mm equivalent you have to divide it by 1.52 because a the Nikon has a crop factor of 1.5 as a full frame sensor is 1.5x larger than the sensor in the Nikon and by dividing 50mm with 1.52, you end up roughly with 33 meaning you need a 33 lens A Full frame sensor is 36mmx24mm whereas the Nikon’s sensor is 23.6mmx15.6mm

5.7. Find an online tool that clearly helps you to calculate the crop factor of different sensors and desired focal length.

5.7.1. -

6. Shutter Speed

6.1. Shutter Speed is the rate at which the shutter opens within the camera in order to take the photo.

6.2. It is measured in seconds, Example: 1/100 (1 Hundredth of a second) 1" (1 Second)

6.3. The smaller the fraction, the faster the shutter speed. If you use a longer shutter speed this does however create more motion blur, as a fast shutter speed will create a sharper image.