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Matter by Mind Map: Matter

1. Ions

1.1. Charge particle

1.1.1. Positively charged More protons than electrons

1.1.2. Negatively charged More electrons than protons

1.2. Bonding

1.2.1. Ionic compounds Transfer of electrons From metal to non-metal Conduct electricity Only in molten or aqueous state Held together By strong electrostatic forces of attraction

1.2.2. Covalent bonding Sharing of electrons Between non-metals

2. Particulate model of matter

2.1. Size of particles

2.1.1. Small, discrete

2.2. Movement of particles

2.2.1. Constant and moving randomly

2.3. Particles of atoms in different states

2.3.1. Solids Vibrate about fixed position Closely packed In an orderly pattern Lowest kinetic energy Strongest attractive forces

2.3.2. Liquids Slide pass one another easily Loosely packed In a disorderly pattern More kinetic energy than solids Less than gases Strongeer attractive force than gases Less stronger than solids

2.3.3. Gases Far apart Moving randomly At high speeds Most kinetic energy Negligible attractive forces

3. Changes in physical state

3.1. Heat gained

3.1.1. Leads to Melting Sublimation Evaporation/Boiling

3.1.2. Causes increase in kinetic energy In particles Overcome attractive forces between them

3.2. Heat lost

3.2.1. Leads to Freezing Sublimation Condensation Deposition

3.2.2. Causes decrease in kinetic energy In particles Cannot overcome attractive forces anymore

4. Atoms

4.1. Consists of sub-atomic particles

4.1.1. A neucleus Containing protons and neutrons Each have a relative mass of 1

4.1.2. Electrons surrounding the neucleus Negligible mass

4.2. Electrically neutral entity

4.2.1. Equal number of protons and electrons

4.3. Isotopes

4.3.1. Atoms with more neutrons than protons