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1. Improving Communication

1.1. Ways to Facilitate Communication Across Cultural Boundaries

1.1.1. Recognize differences Build your self-awareness Describe and identify, then interpret Don’t assume your interpretation is correct Verbalize your own non-verbal signs Share your experience honestly Acknowledge any discomfort, hesitation, or concern Practice politically correct communication Give your time and attention when communicating Don’t evaluate or judge Be cautious about humor

2. Improving Communication

2.1. You must be a Good Listener! Smile and look interested Be patient Listen carefully and don’t interrupt

2.1.1. Recognize differences Build your self-awareness Describe and identify, then interpret Don’t assume your interpretation is correct Verbalize your own non-verbal signs Share your experience honestly Acknowledge any discomfort, hesitation, or concern Practice politically correct communication Give your time and attention when communicating Don’t evaluate or judge Be cautious about humor

2.2. You must be a Good Listener! Smile and look interested Be patient Listen carefully and don’t interrupt

3. Cultural Competence Skills Include:

3.1. Being aware of your own culture and values Respecting differences Being aware of and working at controlling your own biases and how they affect interactions with others. Understanding institutional barriers that prevent some families from accessing resources Building strong cross cultural team relationships

3.1.1. Advocating for individuals who are different from yourself Using effective communication skills across differences Mediating cross-cultural conflicts Being flexible

4. Understanding the stages of cultural competence

4.1. Stage 1: Cultural Destructiveness Makes people fit the same cultural pattern, excludes those who do not fit Uses differences as barriers

4.2. Stage 2: Cultural incapacity Enforces racial policies and maintains stereotypes Lack of capacity or will to help minorities clients in the community Applies resources unfairly

4.3. Stage 3: Cultural blindness All people are the same Ignore cultural strengths Isolate those who do not assimilate View ethnic minorities as culturally deprived

4.4. Stage 4: Cultural Pre competence Desire to deliver quality services Realize its weaknesses, attempt to improve some aspects of services Explore how to serve minority communities better

4.5. Stage 5: Cultural competence Acceptance and respect for differences Continuous self-assessment Pay attention to the dynamics of differences to meet clients’ needs better Adapt service models to accommodate clients’ needs Seek advice and consultation from minority communities

4.6. Stage 6: Cultural proficiency Hold all cultures in high esteem Seek to add to knowledge base Advocate continuously for cultural competence

5. Glossary of cultural competence terms

5.1. Ethnocentrism- Attitude that beliefs , customs, or practices of one’s own ethnics group, or culture as superior

5.2. Multiculturalism- relationship between and within two or more diverse group. Take into consideration specific values, beliefs and actions influence by client’s ethnicity, gender, religion, political views, and geographic region

5.3. Prejudice- Preconceived judgments, opinions or assumptions from without knowledge or examination of facts about individuals

5.4. Race- categorizing of major groups of people solely on physical features that distinguish certain groups from others

6. What is the difference  between professional help and friendship

6.1. Friendship is a one-way process

6.2. Professional help means a two way process

7. Settings where  professional helpers work

7.1. HRD


8. Different Helpers

8.1. Non-professional: Have some interest and attended seminar or talks on effective communication and helping.

8.2. Paraprofessionals: receive more intensive training in helping on the job or at educational institutions

8.3. Professionals : specialists who have undergone lengthy training or courses at the university level and specialized in helping/counselling skills.

9. How a Helper Develops (Perry’s Stages)

9.1. The Dualistic or Right/ Wrong Stage Is characterized by the belief that a helper’s responses to a client are right or wrong.  In the beginning trainees often believe that there is only one right way to respond to a client’s statement or situation. The helper may fail to listen fully to their clients because they are thinking what they are going to say next.

9.2. The Multiplistic Stage The helper becomes comfortable with the knowledge that there is no one right answer at any moment in the helping process.  The student at this stage knows that questioning can be a valid approach, but he or she does not yet understand when this approach is more appropriate and therefore is confused about what to do.

9.3. The Relativistic Stage When you have gained some experiences through study and practice, you will move into relativistic stage. At that stage, you will recognize that although many type of responses may be appropriate, depending on circumstances, some are relatively better than others. You will be able to think about the effects of certain responses on the client and the effectiveness of the responses in reaching the desired goal

10. The Unique Characteristics of a Therapeutic Relationship

10.1. There is a mutual liking or at least respect – At least the helper conveys respect for the client’s autonomy, and the client respects the helper’s expertise

10.1.1. The purpose of the relationship is the resolution of the client’s issues – the helper does not ask for or receive support from client.  It is a one-way street where the helper is the giver. The helper’s own issues are dealt with outside of the client’s hour. There is a sense of teamwork as both helper and client work toward a mutually agreed-upon goal– the client can draw strength from the fact that the helper is there to provide support for change in the mutually decided direction.

10.2. There is a contract specifying what will be disclosed to others outside of the relationship – as the client experiences this safety, he or she began to discuss deeper and deeper issues.

10.2.1. There is an understanding that the relationship is confined to the counselling sessions and does not overlap into the participants’ personal lives – most helpers give out a 24-hour crisis hotline number rather than their own phone number. They do not interact socially with clients when it can be avoided so that objectivity is not strained by other consideration As a contractual relationship, the relationship can be terminated at any time – generally, the helper terminated the relationship when sufficient progress has been made or if the client is not making progress at all.

11. Roadblocks to  Communication

11.1. ORDERING, DIRECTING, COMMANDING - You must do this - You cannot do this - I expect you to do this - Go apologize to her

11.1.1. WARNING, THREATENING - You better do this, or else - You better not try that

11.2. MORALIZING, PREACHING - You ought to try it - It is your responsibility to do this - I urge you to do this

11.2.1. ADVISING, GIVING SOLUTIONS - Let me suggest - It would be best for you if

11.3. JUDGING, CRITICIZING, BLAMING - You’re wrong - You didn’t do it right

12. Guidelines dealing with diverse client

12.1. Recognize they may hold attitudes  and beliefs that influence their perceptions of any interactions with individuals from different culture

12.1.1. Recognize the important of multicultural sensitivity/responsiveness, knowledge and understanding about ethnically and racially different individuals

12.1.2. Educators, encourages employ the constructs of multiculturalism and diversity in education Researchers recognize the importance of conducting culture-centered and ethical psychological research among person from ethnic, linguistic and racial minority background

13. Culture greatly influences attitudes about physical contact. Different cultures regulate the display of emotion differently Some cultures may use different standards for loudness, speed of delivery, silence, attentiveness and time to respond to others

14. Why cultural competence matters

15. Cultural diversity- differences in race, ethnicity, nationality, religion, gender, sexual identity and etc

16. Multicultural Terminology (Corey et al., 2011)

16.1. Ethnicity- sense of identity from common origin, history, nationality, religion and race.

16.2. Ethnic minority group- group of people who have been singled out for differential and unequal treatment. Example: elderly, gay, lesbians, bisexuals and people with disabilities (Atkinson, 2004)

16.3. Diversity- individual differences on a number of variables that places client at risk for discrimination based on age, gander identity, sexual orientation

16.3.1. Cultural diversity competence- practitioner’s levels of awareness, knowledge, and interpersonal skills when working with individual from diverse background

16.4. Cultural empathy- awareness of their own personal biases

16.5. Stereotype- oversimplified and uncritical generalizations about individuals who are identified as belonging to a specific group

16.6. Culture- social norms and responses that condition the behavior of a group of people

16.7. Discrimination- act of treating a person, issue or behavior unjustly or inequitably as a result of prejudices

16.8. Ethnicity- Beliefs, values, customs, or practices of specific group

16.8.1. Open the Theme menu from the bottom of your map editor to change your map theme

16.8.2. Create a presentation of your mind map by clicking the presentation icon in the bottom left corner of your screen Simply hold down COMMAND i.e. CTRL and Click & Drag to create a slide for one or multiple topics Set transitions for your slides Click "Start Slideshow" to view your presentation

16.8.3. Open the Sharing Settings from the bottom of your map editor to share the map with a friend or publish it to the web You can share your map with anyone via email You can publish your map and enable anyone with an internet access to find it You can embed your map on a blog or website


17.1. a) Non-professionals b) Paraprofessionals c) Professionals

18. Understanding Cultural Competence

19. Cultural competence is: Capacity to increase their knowledge and understanding of cultural differences Ability to acknowledge cultural assumptions and biases Willingness to make change in thought and behavior to address those biases

20. Individuals from minority groups can be significant

20.1. Understanding and appreciating a clients’ cultural background expand treatment/intervention opportunities

20.1.1. Enhancing the sensitivity and capacity to treat clients from other cultures improves ability to treat/assist all client

21. Understanding Cultural Differences

22. Family is defined differently by different cultures Some cultural groups stress respect for family Eye contact varies by culture. Physical distance during social interaction varies by culture